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Published March 24, 2020 | public
Journal Article Open

The Vibration Behavior of Sub-Micrometer Gas Vesicles in Response to Acoustic Excitation Determined via Laser Doppler Vibrometry


The ability to monitor sub‐micrometer gas vesicles' (GVs) vibration behavior to nonlinear buckling and collapse using laser Doppler vibrometry is reported, providing a precise noncontact technique for monitoring the motion of sub‐micrometer objects. The fundamental and first harmonic resonance frequencies of the vesicles are found to be 1.024 and 1.710 GHz, respectively. An interparticle resonance is furthermore identified at ≈300 MHz, inversely dependent upon the agglomerated GV size of around 615 nm. Most importantly, the vesicles amplify and broaden input acoustic signals at far lower frequencies—for example, 7 MHz—associated with medical and industrial applications, and they are found to transition from a linear to nonlinear response at 150 kPa and to collapse at 350 kPa or greater.

Additional Information

© 2020 Wiley‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Issue Online: 26 March 2020; Version of Record online: 14 February 2020; Manuscript received: 09 January 2020. S.Z. and A.H. contributed equally to this work. This work was in significant part generously supported by a research grant from the W.M. Keck Foundation. This work was performed in part at the San Diego Nanotechnology Infrastructure (SDNI) of UCSD, a member of the National Nanotechnology Coordinated Infrastructure, supported by the National Science Foundation (Grant ECCS-1542148). The authors wish to express their gratitude to Eric Lawrence, Jerome Eichenberger, Mario Pineda, and Michael Frech from Polytec for their extraordinary help in this work. The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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Supplemental Material - adfm202000239-sup-0001-suppmat.pdf


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August 22, 2023
August 22, 2023