A Multi-Dimensional Analysis of a Novel Approach for Wireless Stimulation
The elimination of integrated batteries in biomedical implants holds great promise for improving health outcomes in patients with implantable devices. However, despite extensive research in wireless power transfer, achieving efficient power transfer and effective operational range have remained a hindering challenge within anatomical constraints. Objective : We hereby demonstrate an intravascular wireless and batteryless microscale stimulator, designed for (1) low power dissipation via intermittent transmission and (2) reduced fixation mechanical burden via deployment to the anterior cardiac vein (ACV, ∼3.8 mm in diameter). Methods : We introduced a unique coil design circumferentially confined to a 3 mm diameter hollow-cylinder that was driven by a novel transmitter-based control architecture with improved power efficiency. Results : We examined wireless capacity using heterogenous bovine tissue, demonstrating >5 V stimulation threshold with up to 20 mm transmitter-receiver displacement and 20° of misalignment. Feasibility for human use was validated using Finite Element Method (FEM) simulation of the cardiac cycle, guided by pacer phantom-integrated Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI). Conclusion : This system design thus enabled sufficient wireless power transfer in the face of extensive stimulator miniaturization. Significance : Our successful feasibility studies demonstrated the capacity for minimally invasive deployment and low-risk fixation.
© 2020 IEEE. Manuscript received June 7, 2019; revised August 18, 2019, November 18, 2019, and January 31, 2020; accepted March 14, 2020. Date of publication April 1, 2020; date of current version November 20, 2020. This work was supported in part by the National Institute of Health under Grants HL118650 (TKH), HL129727 (TKH), HL111437 (TKH), BX004356 (TKH), EB0220002 (TKH), in part by NIH NIGMS training grant GM008042 (PA), and in part by UCLA David Geffen Scholarship (PA).
Accepted Version - nihms-1648172.pdf