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Published July 2019 | Published
Journal Article Open

X-ray magnetic diffraction under high pressure


Advances in both non-resonant and resonant X-ray magnetic diffraction since the 1980s have provided researchers with a powerful tool for exploring the spin, orbital and ion degrees of freedom in magnetic solids, as well as parsing their interplay. Here, we discuss key issues for performing X-ray magnetic diffraction on single-crystal samples under high pressure (above 40 GPa) and at cryogenic temperatures (4 K). We present case studies of both non-resonant and resonant X-ray magnetic diffraction under pressure for a spin-flip transition in an incommensurate spin-density-wave material and a continuous quantum phase transition of a commensurate all-in–all-out antiferromagnet. Both cases use diamond-anvil-cell technologies at third-generation synchrotron radiation sources. In addition to the exploration of the athermal emergence and evolution of antiferromagnetism discussed here, these techniques can be applied to the study of the pressure evolution of weak charge order such as charge-density waves, antiferro-type orbital order, the charge anisotropic tensor susceptibility and charge superlattices associated with either primary spin order or softened phonons.

Additional Information

© 2019 International Union of Crystallography. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) Licence, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original authors and source are cited. Received 15 March 2019; accepted 15 May 2019; online 21 June 2019. We are grateful to J. C. Lang, J.-W. Kim and J. Strempfer for detailed discussion of X-ray magnetic diffraction techniques, and to Y. Ren for discussion of space-group-symmetry-based selection rules. We are also indebted to past collaborators R. Jaramillo and J. Wang for the development of non-resonant X-ray magnetic diffraction techniques from 2003 to 2013. We specially thank A. Palmer for his contributions to the measurement of both the Cr and Cd_2Os_2O_7 systems presented here, and D. M. Silevitch for his guidance and insights. We are very grateful to the collaboration with D. Mandrus on Cd_2Os_2O_7 that started our development of the high-pressure resonant X-ray magnetic diffraction technique. YF acknowledges support from the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, with subsidy funding from the Cabinet Office, Government of Japan. The work at Caltech was supported by the National Science Foundation under grant No. DMR-1606858. The work at the Advanced Photon Source of the Argonne National Laboratory was supported by the US Department of Energy Basic Energy Sciences under contract No. NEAC02-06CH11357.

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