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Published November 2013 | Supplemental Material
Journal Article Open

Radiative forcing of the stratosphere of Jupiter, Part I: Atmospheric cooling rates from Voyager to Cassini


We developed a line-by-line heating and cooling rate model for the stratosphere of Jupiter, based on two complete sets of global maps of temperature, C_(2)H_2 and C_(2)H_6, retrieved from the Cassini and Voyager observations in the latitude and vertical plane, with a careful error analysis. The non-LTE effect is found unimportant on the thermal cooling rate below the 0.01 mbar pressure level. The most important coolants are molecular hydrogen between 10 and 100 mbar, and hydrocarbons, including ethane (C_(2)H_6), acetylene (C_(2)H_2) and methane (CH_4), in the region above. The two-dimensional cooling rate maps are influenced primarily by the temperature structure, and also by the meridional distributions of C_(2)H_2 and C_(2)H_6. The temperature anomalies at the 1 mbar pressure level in the Cassini data and the strong C_(2)H_6 latitudinal contrast in the Voyager epoch are the two most prominent features influencing the cooling rate patterns, with the effect from the 'quasi-quadrennial oscillation (QQO)' thermal structures at ~20 mbar. The globally averaged CH4 heating and cooling rates are not balanced, clearly in the lower stratosphere under 10 mbar, and possibly in the upper stratosphere above the 1 mbar pressure level. Possible heating sources from the gravity wave breaking and aerosols are discussed. The radiative relaxation timescale in the lower stratosphere implies that the temperature profile might not be purely radiatively controlled.

Additional Information

© 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Received 1 December 2012; Received in revised form; 22 May 2013; Accepted 10 July 2013; Available online 26 July 2013. We thank V. Meadows for the latest CH_4 absorption data, G. Orton for the updated hydrogen-brodened C_(2)H_2 and C_(2)H6 line list, T. Greathouse, T. Dowling, L. Brown, R. Morales-Juberias, and M. Line for discussions and two anonymous refrees for helpful reviews. This research was supported by the Outer Planets Research program via NASA grant JPL.1452240 to the California Institute of Technology. CAN was supported in part by NASA Cassini Mission. RLS and YLY were supported in part by NASANNX09AB72G grant to the California Institute of Technology. PGJI was supported in part by the United Kingdom Science and Technology Facilities Council. The digital data files of the retrieved temperatures, gas abundances, and cooling rates are available in the online supplementary materials.

Attached Files

Supplemental Material - mmc1.txt

Supplemental Material - mmc2.txt

Supplemental Material - mmc3.txt

Supplemental Material - mmc4.txt

Supplemental Material - mmc5.txt

Supplemental Material - mmc6.txt

Supplemental Material - mmc7.txt

Supplemental Material - mmc8.txt

Supplemental Material - mmc9.txt


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