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Published June 22, 2017 | Supplemental Material + Published
Journal Article Open

3-D Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Mapping of Arteries to Detect Metabolically Active but Angiographically Invisible Atherosclerotic Lesions


We designed a novel 6-point electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) sensor with 15 combinations of permutations for the 3-D mapping and detection of metabolically active atherosclerotic lesions. Two rows of 3 stretchable electrodes circumferentially separated by 120° were mounted on an inflatable balloon for intravascular deployment and endoluminal interrogation. The configuration and 15 permutations of 2-point EIS electrodes allowed for deep arterial penetration via alternating current (AC) to detect varying degrees of lipid burden with distinct impedance profiles (Ω). By virtue of the distinctive impedimetric signature of metabolically active atherosclerotic lesions, a detailed impedance map was acquired, with the 15 EIS permutations uncovering early stages of disease characterized by fatty streak lipid accumulation in the New Zealand White rabbit model of atherosclerosis. Both the equivalent circuit and statistical analyses corroborated the 3-D EIS permutations to detect small, angiographically invisible, lipid-rich lesions, with translational implications for early atherosclerotic disease detection and prevention of acute coronary syndromes or strokes.

Additional Information

© 2017 Ivyspring International Publisher. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY-NC) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/). Received: 2017.01.14; Accepted: 2017.04.18; Published: 2017.06.22. This study was supported by National Institutes of Health grants HL118650 (T.K.H., Y.C.T.), HL083015 (T.K.H.), HL111437 (T.K.H., Y.C.T.), and HL129727 (T.K.H.), the UCLA STAR program (R.R.S.P.), and American Heart Association Scientist Development Grant 16SDG30910007 (R.R.S.P.). The authors have declared that no competing interest exists.

Attached Files

Published - v07p2431.pdf

Supplemental Material - thnov07p2431s1.pdf


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