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Published March 7, 2009 | Published
Journal Article Open

Sudden stratospheric warmings seen in MINOS deep underground muon data

Osprey, S.
Barnett, J.
Smith, J.
Adamson, P.
Andreopoulos, C.
Arms, K. E.
Armstrong, R.
Auty, D. J.
Ayres, D. S.
Baller, B.
Barnes, P. D., Jr.
Barr, G. D.
Barrett, W. L.
Becker, B. R.
Belias, A.
Bernstein, R. H.
Bhattacharya, D.
Bishai, M.
Blake, A.
Bock, G. J.
Boehm, J.
Boehnlein, D. J.
Bogert, D.
Bower, C.
Buckley-Geer, E.
Cavanaugh, S.
Chapman, J. D.
Cherdack, D.
Childress, S.
Choudhary, B. C.
Cobb, J. H.
Coleman, S. J.
Culling, A. J.
de-Jong, J. K.
Dierckxsens, M.
Diwan, M. V.
Dorman, M.
Dytman, S. A.
Escobar, C. O.
Evans, J. J.
Falk, E.
Feldman, G. J.
Frohne, M. V.
Gallagher, H. R.
Godley, A.
Goodman, M. C.
Gouffon, P.
Gran, R.
Grashorn, E. W.
Grossman, N.
Grzelak, K.
Habig, A.
Harris, D.
Harris, P. G.
Hartnell, J.
Hatcher, R.
Himmel, A.
Holin, A.
Hylen, J.
Irwin, G. M.
Ishitsuka, M.
Jaffe, D. E.
James, C.
Jensen, D.
Kafka, T.
Kasahara, S. M. S.
Kim, J. J.
Koizumi, G.
Kopp, S.
Kordosky, M.
Koskinen, D. J.
Kreymer, A.
Kumaratunga, S.
Lang, K.
Ling, J.
Litchfield, P. J.
Litchfield, R. P.
Loiacono, L.
Lucas, P. ORCID icon
Ma, J.
Mann, W. A.
Marshak, M. L.
Marshall, J. S.
Mayer, N.
McGowan, A. M.
Meier, J. R.
Messier, M. D.
Metelko, C. J.
Michael, D. G.
Miller, L.
Miller, W. H.
Mishra, S. R.
Moore, C. D.
Morfin, J. G.
Mualem, L.
Mufson, S.
Musser, J.
Naples, D.
Nelson, J. K.
Newman, H. B. ORCID icon
Nichol, R. J.
Nicholls, T. C.
Ochoa-Ricoux, J. P.
Oliver, W. P.
Ospanov, R.
Paley, J.
Paolone, V.
Pavlovic, Z.
Pawloski, G.
Pearce, G. F.
Peck, C. W.
Petyt, D. A.
Pittam, R.
Plunkett, R. K.
Rahaman, A.
Rameika, R. A.
Raufer, T. M.
Rebel, B.
Reichenbacher, J.
Rodrigues, P. A.
Rosenfeld, C.
Rubin, H. A.
Ruddick, K.
Sanchez, M. C.
Saoulidou, N.
Schneps, J.
Schreiner, P.
Seun, S. M.
Shanahan, P.
Smart, W.
Smith, C.
Smith, R.
Sousa, A.
Speakman, B.
Stamoulis, P.
Strait, M.
Symes, P.
Tagg, N.
Talaga, R. L.
Tavera, M. A.
Thomas, J.
Thompson, J.
Thomson, M. A.
Thron, J. L.
Tinti, G.
Tzanakos, G.
Urheim, J.
Vahle, P.
Viren, B.
Watabe, M.
Weber, A.
Webb, R. C.
Wehmann, A.
West, N.
White, C.
Wojcicki, S. G.
Wright, D. M.
Yang, T.
Zhang, K.
Zwaska, R.


The rate of high energy cosmic ray muons as measured underground is shown to be strongly correlated with upper-air temperatures during short-term atmospheric (10-day) events. The effects are seen by correlating data from the MINOS underground detector and temperatures from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts during the winter periods from 2003–2007. This effect provides an independent technique for the measurement of meteorological conditions and presents a unique opportunity to measure both short and long-term changes in this important part of the atmosphere.

Additional Information

© 2009 American Geophysical Union. Received 16 October 2008; accepted 15 January 2009; published 7 March 2009. This work was supported by the US DOE, the UK STFC, the US NSF, the state and University of Minnesota, the University of Athens, Greece, and Brazil's FAPESP and CNPq. We are grateful to the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, the crew of the Soudan Underground Laboratory, and the staff of Fermilab for their contribution to this effort. We also acknowledge the BADC and the ECMWF for providing the environmental data for this project.

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