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Published March 2010 | public
Journal Article

Bioconjugation of barium titanate nanocrystals with immunoglobulin G antibody for second harmonic radiation imaging probes


The second harmonic generation (SHG) active nanocrystals have been demonstrated as attractive imaging probes in nonlinear microscopy due to their coherent, non-bleaching and non-blinking signals with a broad flexibility in the choice of excitation wavelength. For the use of these nanocrystals as biomarkers, it is essential to prepare a chemical interface for specific labeling. We developed a specific labeling scheme for barium titanate (BaTiO_3) nanocrystals which we use as second harmonic radiation imaging probes. The specificity was achieved by covalently coupling antibodies onto the nanocrystals. We demonstrate highly specific labeling of the nanocrystal conjugates in an antibody microarray and also the membrane proteins of live biological cells in vitro. The development of surface functionalization and bioconjugation of SHG active nanocrystals provides the opportunities of applying them to biological studies.

Additional Information

© 2009 Elsevier. Received 9 November 2009; accepted 26 November 2009. Available online 8 December 2009. The authors thank Keith Harshman, Johann Weber, Floriane Consales, and John Wang in University of Lausanne for the help of microarray preparation. The authors thank Marie-Agnes Doucey, Sylvian Bron, and Pei-Jiun Chen in University of Lausanne for the discussion of the antibodies and nanocrystals staining. The authors thank Paul Bowen for providing the nanocrystals, Marc Chambon and Nathalie Ballanfat for the help of HeLa cell preparation. The authors also thank Stephen Quake, Stavros Stavrakis, and Jerrod Schwartz for helpful discussions on the colloidal stabilization. This project is supported by National Center of Competence in Research (NCCR), Quantum Photonics.

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