Hydrous Manganese Oxide Doped Gel Probe Sampler for Measuring In Situ Reductive Dissolution Rates. 2. Field Deployment
In situ rates of reductive dissolution in submerged shoreline sediments at Lake Tegel (Berlin, Germany) were measured with a novel hydrous manganese (Mn) oxide-doped gel probe sampler in concert with equilibrium gel probe and sequential extraction measurements. Rates were low in the top 8 cm, then showed a peak from 8 to 14 cm, with a maximum at 12 cm depth. This rate corresponded with a peak in dissolved porewater iron (Fe) at 11 cm depth. Below 14 cm, the reductive dissolution rate reached an intermediate steady value. Lower rates at depth corresponded with increases in operationally defined fractions of carbonate-bound and organic- and sulfide-bound Mn and Fe as detected by sequential extraction. Observed rates of reductive dissolution, which reflect a capacity for Mn reduction rather than actual rates under ambient conditions, appear to correlate with porewater chemistry and sequential extraction fractions as expected in early sediment diagenesis, and are consistent with previous measurements of in situ reductive dissolution rates. Significant downward advection in this bank filtration setting depletes the Mn and Fe oxides in the sediments and enhances the transport of dissolved Fe and Mn into the infiltrating water.
Additional Information© 2009 American Chemical Society. Received May 29, 2009. Revised manuscript received October 10, 2009. Accepted October 22, 2009. Publication Date (Web): November 5, 2009. We thank G. Massmann and T. Taute for useful site discussions and coordination with the Berlin Waterworks (Berlin Wasserbetreibe). We also thank J. Morgan and J. Adkins for helpful discussions about HMO-doped gel probe deployment and modeling, S. Hug and L. Roberts for assistance with the foil gel probe pouches, R. Saladin, M. Bonalumi, M. Kunz, and A. Muller for assistance with particle size analysis, and M. Huettel for helpful discussions regarding groundwater flow. We gratefully acknowledge funding from Eawag and NSF EAR-0525387, as well as support from an NSF Graduate Research Fellowship (C.E.F.) and a Caltech Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (S.D.G.).
Supplemental Material - es901572h_si_001.pdf