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Published February 2023 | Published
Journal Article Open

FIRE-3: updated stellar evolution models, yields, and microphysics and fitting functions for applications in galaxy simulations


Increasingly, uncertainties in predictions from galaxy formation simulations (at sub-Milky Way masses) are dominated by uncertainties in stellar evolution inputs. In this paper, we present the full set of updates from the Feedback In Realistic Environment (FIRE)-2 version of the FIRE project code, to the next version, FIRE-3. While the transition from FIRE-1 to FIRE-2 focused on improving numerical methods, here we update the stellar evolution tracks used to determine stellar feedback inputs, e.g. stellar mass-loss (O/B and AGB), spectra (luminosities and ionization rates), and supernova rates (core-collapse and Ia), as well as detailed mass-dependent yields. We also update the low-temperature cooling and chemistry, to enable improved accuracy at T ≲ 10⁴ K and densities n ≫ 1 cm⁻³⁠, and the meta-galactic ionizing background. All of these synthesize newer empirical constraints on these quantities and updated stellar evolution and yield models from a number of groups, addressing different aspects of stellar evolution. To make the updated models as accessible as possible, we provide fitting functions for all of the relevant updated tracks, yields, etc, in a form specifically designed so they can be directly 'plugged in' to existing galaxy formation simulations. We also summarize the default FIRE-3 implementations of 'optional' physics, including spectrally resolved cosmic rays and supermassive black hole growth and feedback.

Additional Information

© 2022 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Astronomical Society. This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model) We thank Alessandro Lupi for helpful suggestions, and the many collaborators who have contributed to the development of the FIRE project. Support for PFH was provided by NSF Research Grants 1911233 & 20009234, NSF CAREER grant 1455342, and NASA grants 80NSSC18K0562, HST-AR-15800.001-A. Numerical calculations were run on the Caltech compute cluster 'Wheeler,' allocations AST20016, AST21010 & TG-AST140023 supported by the NSF and TACC, and NASA HEC SMD-16-7592. AW received support from: NSF grants CAREER 2045928 and 2107772; NASA ATP grants 80NSSC18K1097 and 80NSSC20K0513; HST grants GO-14734, AR-15057, AR-15809, and GO-15902 from the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., for NASA, under contract NAS5-26555; a Scialog Award from the Heising-Simons Foundation; and a Hellman Fellowship. RF acknowledges financial support from the Swiss National Science Foundation (PP00P2_194814, 200021_188552). Support for MYG was provided by NASA through the NASA Hubble Fellowship grant #HST-HF2-51479 awarded by STScI. MBK acknowledges support from NSF CAREER award AST-1752913, NSF grants AST-1910346 and AST-2108962, NASA grant NNX17AG29G, and HST-AR-15006, HST-AR-15809, HST-GO-15658, HST-GO-15901, HST-GO-15902, HST-AR-16159, and HST-GO-16226 from STScI. CAFG was supported by NSF through grants AST-1715216 and CAREER award AST-1652522; by NASA through grant 17-ATP17-0067; by STScI through grant HST-AR-16124.001-A; and by the Research Corporation for Science Advancement through a Cottrell Scholar Award and a Scialog Award. DAA was supported in part by NSF grants AST-2009687 and AST-2108944. We ran simulations using: the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE), supported by NSF grant ACI-1548562; Frontera allocations AST21010 and AST20016, supported by the NSF and TACC; Pleiades, via the NASA HEC program through the NAS Division at Ames Research Centre. DATA AVAILABILITY. The data supporting the plots within this article are available on reasonable request to the corresponding author. A public version of the GIZMO code is available at http://www.tapir.caltech.edu/~phopkins/Site/GIZMO.html. FIRE data releases are publicly available at http://flathub.flatironinstitute.org/fire.

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August 22, 2023
August 22, 2023