Greening geographical load balancing
Energy expenditure has become a significant fraction of data center operating costs. Recently, "geographical load balancing" has been suggested to reduce energy cost by exploiting the electricity price differences across regions. However, this reduction of cost can paradoxically increase total energy use. This paper explores whether the geographical diversity of Internet-scale systems can additionally be used to provide environmental gains. Specifically, we explore whether geographical load balancing can encourage use of "green" renewable energy and reduce use of "brown" fossil fuel energy. We make two contributions. First, we derive two distributed algorithms for achieving optimal geographical load balancing. Second, we show that if electricity is dynamically priced in proportion to the instantaneous fraction of the total energy that is brown, then geographical load balancing provides significant reductions in brown energy use. However, the benefits depend strongly on the degree to which systems accept dynamic energy pricing and the form of pricing used.
© 2011 ACM. This work was supported by NSF grants CCF 0830511, CNS 0911041, and CNS 0846025, DoE grant DE-EE0002890, ARO MURI grant W911NF-08-1-0233, Microsoft Research, Bell Labs, the Lee Center for Advanced Networking, and ARC grant FT0991594.