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Published September 29, 2003 | Published
Book Section - Chapter Open

New Paramagnetic Susceptibility Thermometers for Fundamental Physics Measurements


New paramagnetic susceptibility thermometers have been developed for use in fundamental physics missions in earth orbit. These devices use a SQUID magnetometer to measure the variation in the dc magnetization of a thermometric element that consists of a dilute concentration of manganese in a palladium matrix. Near 2.2 K these new PdMn thermometers have demonstrated a temperature resolution of better than 100 pK/√Hz and a time constant of 50 ms when operated with a 50 K/W thermal resistance to the liquid helium sample. These thermometers have been observed to be remarkably stable, with a drift of less than 10 fK/s. The observed power spectral density of the noise from these thermometers is consistent with separate measurements of the device's time constant and thermal standoff from the bath. Recently these PdMn materials have been made into thin films and microstructures for use in future studies of quantum liquids, and for possible use in a new class of bolometers and radiometers. These thermometers have been integrated into an experimental cell and thermal isolation network that are adequate to keep stray heats stable to within a few picowatts, with no systematic temperature errors greater than 60 pK, over the course of a planned fundamental physics experiment on Earth orbit.

Additional Information

© 2003 American Institute of Physics. Issue Date: 29 September 2003. This work has been supported through the Fundamental Physics Discipline of the Microgravity Science Office of the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) under JPL Contract Number 960494. One of us (R.C.N.) acknowledges support from the United States Army.

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