Viscoelastic properties of ECM-rich embryonic microenvironments
The material properties of tissues and their mechanical state is an important factor in development, disease, regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Here we describe a microrheological measurement technique utilizing aggregates of microinjected ferromagnetic nickel particles to probe the viscoelastic properties of embryonic tissues. Quail embryos were cultured in a plastic incubator chamber located at the center of two pairs of crossed electromagnets. We found a pronounced viscoelastic behavior within the ECM-rich region separating the mesoderm and endoderm in Hamburger Hamilton stage 10 quail embryos, consistent with a Zener (standard generalized solid) model. The viscoelastic response is about 45% of the total response, with a characteristic relaxation time of 1.3 s.
© 2020 Akos, Isai, Rajasingh, Kosa, Ghazvini, Dhar and Czirok. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Received: 16 November 2019; Accepted: 02 July 2020; Published: 31 August 2020. We thank Miklos Csiszer for his help in building the experimental apparatus and Michael B. Filla for his initial help with experiments. Data Availability Statement: The datasets generated for this study are available on request to the corresponding author. Author Contributions: ZA, SG, PD, and AC designed experiments and the microrheological instrument. PD provided nanorods and designed the calibration experiment. ZA, SG, and EK performed the calibration. EK and SR injected quail embryos and performed measurements. ZA, DI, and AC analyzed data and wrote the manuscript. The authors would like to acknowledge that grant support was provided by the NIH (R01GM102801) to AC and PD, the American Heart Association (19IPLOI34760594) to AC and the Hungarian Scholarship Board's Eotvos Scholarship to ZA. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
Submitted - 853044.full.pdf
Supplemental Material - Data_Sheet_1_Viscoelastic_Properties_of_ECM-Rich_Embryonic_Microenvironments.PDF
Supplemental Material - Video_1_Viscoelastic_Properties_of_ECM-Rich_Embryonic_Microenvironments.AVI
Supplemental Material - Video_2_Viscoelastic_Properties_of_ECM-Rich_Embryonic_Microenvironments.AVI
Published - fcell-08-00674.pdf
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