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Published April 28, 2023 | Published + Supplemental Material
Journal Article Open

Vertical-Slice Ocean Tomography With Seismic Waves


Seismically generated sound waves that propagate through the ocean are used to infer temperature anomalies and their vertical structure in the deep East Indian Ocean. These T waves are generated by earthquakes off Sumatra and received by hydrophone stations off Diego Garcia and Cape Leeuwin. Between repeating earthquakes, a T wave's travel time changes in response to temperature anomalies along the wave's path. What part of the water column the travel time is sensitive to depends on the frequency of the wave, so measuring travel time changes at a few low frequencies constrains the vertical structure of the inferred temperature anomalies. These measurements reveal anomalies due to equatorial waves, mesoscale eddies, and decadal warming trends. By providing direct constraints on basin-scale averages with dense sampling in time, these data complement previous point measurements that alias local and transient temperature anomalies.

Additional Information

© 2023. The Authors. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This material is based upon work supported by the Resnick Sustainability Institute and by the National Science Foundation under Grant OCE-2023161. The views expressed in the paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of the CTBTO. Data Availability Statement. The IMS hydrophone data are available directly from the CTBTO upon request and signing a confidentiality agreement to access the virtual Data Exploitation Centre (vDEC). All seismic data were downloaded through the IRIS Data Management Center (https://service.iris.edu/), including the seismic networks II (GSN; https://doi.org/10.7914/SN/II), MY, PS, and GE (https://doi.org/10.14470/TR560404). The Global Seismographic Network (GSN) is a cooperative scientific facility operated jointly by the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS), the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Science Foundation (NSF), under Cooperative Agreement EAR-1261681. The processing code is available at https://github.com/joernc/SOT.

Attached Files

Published - Geophysical_Research_Letters_-_2023_-_Callies_-_Vertical‐Slice_Ocean_Tomography_With_Seismic_Waves.pdf

Supplemental Material - 2023gl102881-sup-0001-supporting_information_si-s01.pdf



Additional details

August 22, 2023
October 20, 2023