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Published August 20, 2022 | public
Journal Article

Mapping effective connectivity of human amygdala subdivisions with intracranial stimulation


The primate amygdala is a complex consisting of over a dozen nuclei that have been implicated in a host of cognitive functions, individual differences, and psychiatric illnesses. These functions are implemented through distinct connectivity profiles, which have been documented in animals but remain largely unknown in humans. Here we present results from 25 neurosurgical patients who had concurrent electrical stimulation of the amygdala with intracranial electroencephalography (electrical stimulation tract-tracing; es-TT), or fMRI (electrical stimulation fMRI; es-fMRI), methods providing strong inferences about effective connectivity of amygdala subdivisions with the rest of the brain. We quantified functional connectivity with medial and lateral amygdala, the temporal order of these connections on the timescale of milliseconds, and also detail second-order effective connectivity among the key nodes. These findings provide a uniquely detailed characterization of human amygdala functional connectivity that will inform functional neuroimaging studies in healthy and clinical populations.

Additional Information

Supported by grant from National Institute of Health R01_DC004290-20 to M.A.H., National Institute of Health U01_NS103780 and the Simons Collaboration on the Global Brain to R.A. This work was conducted on an MRI instrument funded by National Institutes of Health grant 1S10OD025025-01. We thank Kirill V. Nourski, Haiming Chen, Phillip. E. Gander, Christopher Garcia, and Hiroto Kawasaki for help with experiments, John Buatti and Colin P. Derdeyn for MRI scanner logistics, Mark A. Granner for safety monitoring, and Vince A. Magnotta for MRI technical consultation.

Additional details

August 22, 2023
December 22, 2023