Permeation Properties of Neurotransmitter Transporters
The neurotransmitter transporters belong to three known families of intrinsic membrane proteins (Figure 1). The energy for transport, which is often against the neurotransmitter concentration gradient, is derived from the cotransport (and in some cases the counter transport) of inorganic ions. Ion-transporting ATPases establish the concentration gradients for these ions.
© 1994 Annual Reviews. We thank D Atwell, B Kanner, G Rudnick, and E Schwartz for helpful comments on the manuscript and N Davidson for stimulating discussions. Our research is supported by fellowships from the NIH (J Corey, M Quick), the Muscular Dystrophy Association (S Mager), and the Lester Deutsch Foundation (S Mager) and by a grant from the NIH (NS-11756).