Welcome to the new version of CaltechAUTHORS. Login is currently restricted to library staff. If you notice any issues, please email coda@library.caltech.edu
Published April 28, 2020 | Published + Submitted + Supplemental Material
Journal Article Open

Increasing efficiency of high numerical aperture metasurfaces using the grating averaging technique


One of the important advantages of optical metasurfaces over conventional diffractive optical elements is their capability to efficiently deflect light by large angles. However, metasurfaces are conventionally designed using approaches that are optimal for small deflection angles and their performance for designing high numerical aperture devices is not well quantified. Here we introduce and apply a technique for the estimation of the efficiency of high numerical aperture metasurfaces. The technique is based on a particular coherent averaging of diffraction coefficients of periodic blazed gratings and can be used to compare the performance of different metasurface designs in implementing high numerical aperture devices. Unlike optimization-based methods that rely on full-wave simulations and are only practicable in designing small metasurfaces, the gradient averaging technique allows for the design of arbitrarily large metasurfaces. Using this technique, we identify an unconventional metasurface design and experimentally demonstrate a metalens with a numerical aperture of 0.78 and a measured focusing efficiency of 77%. The grating averaging is a versatile technique applicable to many types of gradient metasurfaces, thus enabling highly efficient metasurface components and systems.

Additional Information

© The Author(s) 2020. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. Received 25 February 2020; Accepted 13 April 2020; Published 28 April 2020. We gratefully acknowledge critical support and infrastructure provided for this work by the Kavli Nanoscience Institute at Caltech. This work was supported by Samsung Electronics. Author Contributions: A.A. conceived the idea and designed the structures. A.A., E.A., S.M.K. and Y.H. fabricated the structures. A.A., M.M. and S.H. performed the simulations. A.A. and E.A. performed the measurements and analyzed the data. A.A. and A.F. devised the experiments and supervised the work. A.A. prepared the manuscript with input from all authors. The authors declare no competing interests.

Attached Files

Submitted - 2004.06182.pdf

Supplemental Material - 41598_2020_64198_MOESM1_ESM.pdf

Published - s41598-020-64198-8.pdf


Files (10.7 MB)
Name Size Download all
149.3 kB Preview Download
8.6 MB Preview Download
1.9 MB Preview Download

Additional details

August 22, 2023
August 22, 2023