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Published March 18, 2020 | Supplemental Material + Accepted Version
Journal Article Open

Fighting against fast speckle decorrelation for light focusing inside live tissue by photon frequency shifting


Light focusing inside live tissue by digital optical phase conjugation (DOPC) has drawn increasing interest due to its potential biomedical applications in optogenetics, microsurgery, phototherapy, and deep-tissue imaging. However, fast physiological motions in a live animal, including blood flow and respiratory motions, produce undesired photon perturbation and thus inevitably deteriorate the performance of light focusing. Here, we develop a photon-frequency-shifting DOPC method to fight against fast physiological motions by switching the states of a guide star at a distinctive frequency. Therefore, the photons tagged by the guide star are well detected at the specific frequency, separating them from the photons perturbed by fast motions. Light focusing was demonstrated in both phantoms in vitro and mice in vivo with substantially improved focusing contrast. This work puts a new perspective on light focusing inside live tissue and promises wide biomedical applications.

Additional Information

© 2020 American Chemical Society. Received: January 7, 2020; Published: February 26, 2020. This work was financially supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Grants CA186567 (NIH Director's Transformative Research Award), NS090579, and NS099717. The authors declare the following competing financial interest(s): L. V. Wang has a financial interest in Microphotoacoustics, Inc., CalPACT, LLC, and Union Photoacoustic Technologies, Ltd., which, however, did not support this work. The other authors declare no competing financial interests.

Attached Files

Accepted Version - nihms-1589895.pdf

Supplemental Material - ph0c00027_si_001.pdf


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