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Published January 5, 2015 | Accepted Version + Supplemental Material
Journal Article Open

Optical focusing deep inside dynamic scattering media with near-infrared time-reversed ultrasonically encoded (TRUE) light


Focusing light deep inside living tissue has not been achieved despite its promise to play a central role in biomedical imaging, optical manipulation and therapy. To address this challenge, internal-guide-star-based wavefront engineering techniques—for example, time-reversed ultrasonically encoded (TRUE) optical focusing—were developed. The speeds of these techniques, however, were limited to no greater than 1 Hz, preventing them from in vivo applications. Here we improve the speed of optical focusing deep inside scattering media by two orders of magnitude, and focus diffuse light inside a dynamic scattering medium having a speckle correlation time as short as 5.6 ms, typical of living tissue. By imaging a target, we demonstrate the first focusing of diffuse light inside a dynamic scattering medium containing living tissue. Since the achieved focusing speed approaches the tissue decorrelation rate, this work is an important step towards in vivo deep tissue noninvasive optical imaging, optogenetics and photodynamic therapy.

Additional Information

© 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Received 8 May 2014; Accepted 19 Nov 2014; Published 5 Jan 2015. We thank Lidai Wang for providing the hard palate fixture for the animal experiment, Yuta Suzuki for discussions and James Ballard and Seema Dahlheimer for proofreading the manuscript. This work was supported in part by the National Institutes of Health grants DP1 EB016986 (NIH Director's Pioneer Award) and R01 CA186567 (NIH Director's Transformative Research Award). Author contributions: P.L. initiated the project. A.A.G. provided the Sn_2P_2S_6:Te crystal. Y.L. and P.L. designed and built the system. Y.L., X.X. and P.L. designed the system control. Y.L., P.L. and C.M. designed the experiments. Y.L. performed the dynamic phantom experiments. Y.L., P.L. and C.M. performed the living tissue experiments. Y.L. and C.M. did the numerical simulation. Y.L. wrote the codes for the experiments and processed the data. P.L. and Y.L. wrote the introduction, and Y.L. wrote the rest of the manuscript. L.V.W. provided overall supervision. All authors were involved in revising the manuscript. Competing financial interests: L.V.W. has a financial interest in Microphotoacoustics Inc. and Endra Inc., which, however, did not support this work. The remaining authors declare no competing financial interest.

Attached Files

Accepted Version - nihms-653317.pdf

Supplemental Material - ncomms6904-s1.pdf

Supplemental Material - ncomms6904-s2.avi


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