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Published May 3, 2023 | Submitted
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Dense Nuclear Matter Equation of State from Heavy-Ion Collisions

Sorensen, Agnieszka ORCID icon
Agarwal, Kshitij ORCID icon
Brown, Kyle W.
Chajecki, Zbigniew ORCID icon
Danielewicz, Paweł ORCID icon
Drischler, Christian ORCID icon
Gandolfi, Stefano ORCID icon
Holt, Jeremy W. ORCID icon
Kaminski, Matthias ORCID icon
Ko, Che-Ming ORCID icon
Kumar, Rohit
Li, Bao-An ORCID icon
Lynch, William G. ORCID icon
McIntosh, Alan B. ORCID icon
Newton, William G. ORCID icon
Pratt, Scott ORCID icon
Savchuk, Oleh ORCID icon
Stefaniak, Maria ORCID icon
Tews, Ingo ORCID icon
Tsang, ManYee Betty ORCID icon
Vogt, Ramona ORCID icon
Wolter, Hermann ORCID icon
Zbroszczyk, Hanna ORCID icon
Abbasi, Navid ORCID icon
Aichelin, Jörg
Andronic, Anton ORCID icon
Bass, Steffen A. ORCID icon
Becattini, Francesco ORCID icon
Blaschke, David ORCID icon
Bleicher, Marcus ORCID icon
Blume, Christoph ORCID icon
Bratkovskaya, Elena ORCID icon
Brown, B. Alex ORCID icon
Brown, David A. ORCID icon
Camaiani, Alberto ORCID icon
Casini, Giovanni
Chatziioannou, Katerina ORCID icon
Chbihi, Abdelouahad ORCID icon
Colonna, Maria
Cozma, Mircea Dan
Dexheimer, Veronica ORCID icon
Dong, Xin
Dore, Travis ORCID icon
Du, Lipei ORCID icon
Dueñas, José A.
Elfner, Hannah ORCID icon
Florkowski, Wojciech ORCID icon
Fujimoto, Yuki
Furnstahl, Richard J. ORCID icon
Gade, Alexandra ORCID icon
Galatyuk, Tetyana ORCID icon
Gale, Charles ORCID icon
Geurts, Frank ORCID icon
Grozdanov, Sašo ORCID icon
Hagel, Kris ORCID icon
Harris, Steven P. ORCID icon
Haxton, Wick ORCID icon
Heinz, Ulrich ORCID icon
Heller, Michal P. ORCID icon
Hen, Or ORCID icon
Hergert, Heiko ORCID icon
Herrmann, Norbert ORCID icon
Huang, Huan Zhong
Huang, Xu-Guang ORCID icon
Ikeno, Natsumi ORCID icon
Inghirami, Gabriele ORCID icon
Jankowski, Jakub ORCID icon
Jia, Jiangyong ORCID icon
Jiménez, José C.
Kapusta, Joseph
Kardan, Behruz ORCID icon
Karpenko, Iurii ORCID icon
Keane, Declan ORCID icon
Kharzeev, Dmitri ORCID icon
Kugler, Andrej ORCID icon
Le Fèvre, Arnaud ORCID icon
Lee, Dean ORCID icon
Liu, Hong
Lisa, Michael A. ORCID icon
Llope, William J. ORCID icon
Lombardo, Ivano ORCID icon
Lorenz, Manuel
Marchi, Tommaso ORCID icon
McLerran, Larry
Mosel, Ulrich ORCID icon
Motornenko, Anton ORCID icon
Müller, Berndt
Napolitani, Paolo ORCID icon
Natowitz, Joseph B. ORCID icon
Nazarewicz, Witold ORCID icon
Noronha, Jorge ORCID icon
Noronha-Hostler, Jacquelyn ORCID icon
Odyniec, Grażyna
Papakonstantinou, Panagiota ORCID icon
Paulínyová, Zuzana
Piekarewicz, Jorge ORCID icon
Pisarski, Robert D. ORCID icon
Plumberg, Christopher ORCID icon
Prakash, Madappa ORCID icon
Randrup, Jørgen ORCID icon
Ratti, Claudia ORCID icon
Rau, Peter ORCID icon
Reddy, Sanjay ORCID icon
Schmidt, Hans-Rudolf ORCID icon
Russotto, Paolo ORCID icon
Ryblewski, Radoslaw ORCID icon
Schäfer, Andreas ORCID icon
Schenke, Björn
Sen, Srimoyee ORCID icon
Senger, Peter
Seto, Richard
Shen, Chun ORCID icon
Sherrill, Bradley ORCID icon
Singh, Mayank ORCID icon
Skokov, Vladimir ORCID icon
Spaliński, Michał ORCID icon
Steinheimer, Jan ORCID icon
Stephanov, Mikhail
Stroth, Joachim ORCID icon
Sturm, Christian ORCID icon
Sun, Kai-Jia
Tang, Aihong
Torrieri, Giorgio ORCID icon
Trautmann, Wolfgang
Verde, Giuseppe ORCID icon
Vovchenko, Volodymyr ORCID icon
Wada, Ryoichi ORCID icon
Wang, Fuqiang ORCID icon
Wang, Gang ORCID icon
Werner, Klaus ORCID icon
Xu, Nu
Xu, Zhangbu ORCID icon
Yee, Ho-Ung
Yennello, Sherry ORCID icon
Yin, Yi ORCID icon


The nuclear equation of state (EOS) is at the center of numerous theoretical and experimental efforts in nuclear physics. With advances in microscopic theories for nuclear interactions, the availability of experiments probing nuclear matter under conditions not reached before, endeavors to develop sophisticated and reliable transport simulations to interpret these experiments, and the advent of multi-messenger astronomy, the next decade will bring new opportunities for determining the nuclear matter EOS, elucidating its dependence on density, temperature, and isospin asymmetry. Among controlled terrestrial experiments, collisions of heavy nuclei at intermediate beam energies (from a few tens of MeV/nucleon to about 25 GeV/nucleon in the fixed-target frame) probe the widest ranges of baryon density and temperature, enabling studies of nuclear matter from a few tenths to about 5 times the nuclear saturation density and for temperatures from a few to well above a hundred MeV, respectively. Collisions of neutron-rich isotopes further bring the opportunity to probe effects due to the isospin asymmetry. However, capitalizing on the enormous scientific effort aimed at uncovering the dense nuclear matter EOS, both at RHIC and at FRIB as well as at other international facilities, depends on the continued development of state-of-the-art hadronic transport simulations. This white paper highlights the role that heavy-ion collision experiments and hadronic transport simulations play in understanding strong interactions in dense nuclear matter, with an emphasis on how these efforts can be used together with microscopic approaches and neutron star studies to uncover the nuclear EOS.

Additional Information

Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0). This White Paper has benefited from talks and discussions at the workshop on Dense nuclear matter equation of state in heavy-ion collisions that took place at the Institute for Nuclear Theory (INT), University of Washington (December 5-9, 2022) [851]. We thank the INT for its kind hospitality and stimulating research environment. K.A. thanks Hans-Rudolf Schmidt and Arnaud Le Fèvre, and M.S. thanks Daniel Cebra for insightful discussions. P.D. and B.T. thank Abdou Chbihi, Maria Colonna, Arnaud Le Fèvre, and Giuseppe Verde for discussing complementary international efforts. K.A. and M.S. thank Peter Senger and Richard Seto for helpful comments on the draft of Section III A. M.K. thanks Navid Abbasi, David Blaschke, Casey Cartwright, Saso Grozdanov, and Misha Stephanov for helpful comments on the draft of Section V B. A.S. thanks Jörg Aichelin, David Blaschke, Elena Bratkovskaya, Maria Colonna, Dan Cozma, Wick Haxton, Natsumi Ikeno, Gabriele Inghirami, Behruz Kardan, Declan Keane, Arnaud Le Fèvre, William Llope, Ulrich Mosel, Berndt Müller, Witold Nazarewicz, Grażyna Odyniec, Panagiota Papakonstantinou, Ralf Rapp, Peter Rau, Björn Schenke, Srimoyee Sen, Chun Shen, Christian Sturm, Giorgio Torrieri, and Wolfgang Trautmann for insightful comments on Sections IIV. M.K. thanks Navid Abbasi, David Blaschke, Casey Cartwright, Saso Grozdanov, Ulrich Heinz, Gabriele Inghirami, Michal P. Heller, Jorge Noronha, Jacquelyn Noronha-Hostler, Dirk Rischke, Michał Spaliński, Misha Stephanov, and Giorgio Torrieri for helpful comments on Section V B. This work was supported in part by the INT's U.S. Department of Energy grant No. DE-FG02-00ER41132. K.A. acknowledges support from the Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF, German Federal Ministry of Education and Research) – Project-ID 05P19VTFC1 and Helmholtz Graduate School for Hadron and Ion Research (HGS-HIRe). Z.C. acknowledges support from the U.S. National Science Foundation grant PHYS-2110218. P.D. acknowledges support by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, under Grant DE-SC0019209. S.G. and I.T. acknowledge support from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, under contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25396, and by the Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research, Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) NUCLEI program; S.G. is also supported by the Department of Energy Early Career Award Program, while the work of I.T. is additionally supported by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program of Los Alamos National Laboratory under project number 20220541ECR. J.W.H. is supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation under grants PHY1652199, PHY2209318, and OAC2103680. M.K. is supported, in part, by the U.S. Department of Energy grant DE-SC0012447. C.-M.K. acknowledges support from the U.S. Department of Energy under Award No. DE-SC0015266. R.K., W.G.L., and M.B.T. are supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY-2209145. B.-A.L. is supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, under Award Number DE-SC0013702, and the CUSTIPEN (China-U.S. Theory Institute for Physics with Exotic Nuclei) under the U.S. Department of Energy Grant No. DE-SC0009971. A.B.M. acknowledges support from the U.S. Department of Energy grant DE-FG02-93ER40773. W.G.N. is supported by the NASA grant 80NSSC18K1019 and the National Science Foundation grant 2050099. S.P. and O.S. are supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, grant no. DE-FG02-03ER41259. M.S. is supported by the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation. R.V. acknowledges support from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. H.W. acknowledges support from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation) under Germany's Excellence Strategy EXC-2094-390783311. H.Z. is supported by the National Science Centre, Poland, under grants No. 2021/41/B/ST2/02409 and 2020/38/E/ST2/00019, and by the Warsaw University of Technology project grants IDUB-POB-FWEiTE-3 and IDUB-POB POST-DOC PW.

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August 20, 2023
October 20, 2023