Dual-Modality Photoacoustic and Ultrasound Imaging System for Noninvasive Sentinel Lymph Node Detection in Patients with Breast Cancer
The detection of regional lymph node metastases is important in cancer staging as it guides the prognosis of the patient and the strategy for treatment. Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is an accurate, less invasive alternative to axillary lymph node dissection. The sentinel lymph node hypothesis states that the pathological status of the axilla can be accurately predicted by determining the status of the first lymph nodes that drain from the primary tumor. Physicians use radio-labeled sulfur colloid and/or methylene blue dye to identify the SLN, which is most likely to contain metastatic cancer cells. However, the surgical procedure causes morbidity and associated expenses. To overcome these limitations, we developed a dual-modality photoacoustic and ultrasonic imaging system to noninvasively detect SLNs based on the accumulation of methylene blue dye. Ultimately, we aim to guide percutaneous needle biopsies and provide a minimally invasive method for axillary staging of breast cancer.
Additional Information© 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Received: 01 April 2015; Accepted: 31 July 2015; Published online: 29 October 2015. We thank Prof. James Ballard for his attentive reading of the manuscript. This work was sponsored by NIH grants U54 CA136398, R01 CA134539, DP1 EB016986 (NIH Director's Pioneer Award), and R01 CA186567 (NIH Director's Transformative Research Award). Author Contributions: L.V.W. designed and directed the project, discussed the experiments, and revised the manuscript. A.G.-U. performed data processing, carried out experiments, and wrote the manuscript. T.N.E. developed codes for data acquisition, carried out experiments, and co-wrote the manuscript. A.K. and H.K. helped with the experiments. K.M. contributed to the system development. C.A. performed clinical procedures. J.A.M. directed the clinical trial and performed clinical procedures. Competing interests: L.V.W. has a financial interest in Microphotoacoustics, Inc. and Endra, Inc., which, however, did not support this work.
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