Control of Brain Development, Function and Behavior by the Microbiome
Animals share an intimate and life-long partnership with a myriad of resident microbial species, collectively referred to as the microbiota. Symbiotic microbes have been shown to regulate nutrition and metabolism and are critical for the development and function of the immune system. More recently, studies have suggested that gut bacteria can impact neurological outcomes—altering behavior and potentially affecting the onset and/or severity of nervous system disorders. In this review, we highlight emerging evidence that the microbiome extends its influence to the brain via various pathways connecting the gut to the central nervous system. While understanding and appreciation of a gut microbial impact on neurological function is nascent, unraveling gut-microbiome-brain connections holds the promise of transforming the neurosciences and revealing potentially novel etiologies for psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders.
© 2015 Elsevier Inc. We apologize to those authors whose work we have failed to mention due to space constraints. We would like to thank Hannah Ratner, Catherine Schretter, Dr. Gil Sharon, and Dr. Wei-Li Wu for helpful discussions and critical review of this manuscript. Research in the Mazmanian laboratory is funded by grants from the National Institutes of Health (MH100556, DK078938, and NS085910), the Heritage Medical Research Institute, the Emerald Foundation, Autism Speaks, and the Simons Foundation.
Accepted Version - nihms686514.pdf