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Published February 15, 2012 | Published
Journal Article Open

Double-illumination photoacoustic microscopy


Recent developments of optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) have improved its spatial resolution and imaging speed. However, the penetration depth of OR-PAM is still limited to ∼1  mm in tissue, owing to the strong tissue scattering. Here, we have developed double-illumination PAM (DI-PAM), which illuminates the sample from both top and bottom sides simultaneously. Through phantom and in vivo experiments, we have demonstrated for thin targets that DI-PAM has a penetration depth of ∼2  mm in tissue at 532 nm and a focal zone of 260 μm, both significant improvements over traditional reflection or transmission-mode OR-PAM.

Additional Information

© 2012 Optical Society of America. Received November 15, 2011; accepted January 7, 2012; posted January 10, 2012 (Doc. ID 158148); published February 13, 2012. The authors appreciate Prof. James Ballard's close reading of the manuscript and thank Yan Liu and Joon-Mo Yang for useful discussion and technical assistance. This work was sponsored by National Institutes of Health (NIH) grants R01 EB000712, R01 EB008085, R01 CA134539, U54 CA136398, R01 CA157277, R01 CA159959, and 5P60 DK02057933. Lihong Wang has a financial interest in Microphotoacoustics, Inc., and Endra, Inc., which, however, did not support this work.

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