Plasmonic nanoscale modulators and tunable metasurfaces
We experimentally demonstrate an ultracompact PlasMOStor, a plasmon slot waveguide field-effect modulator based on a transparent conducting oxide active region, as illustrated in Fig. 1. By electrically modulating the conducting oxide material deposited into the gaps of highly confined plasmonic slot waveguides, we demonstrate field-effect dynamics giving rise to modulation with high dynamic range (2.71 dB/μm) and low waveguide loss (~0.45 dB/μm). The large modulation strength is due to the large change in complex dielectric function when the signal wavelength approaches the surface plasmon resonance in the voltage-tuned conducting oxide accumulation layer. The results provide insight about the design of ultracompact, nanoscale modulators for future integrated nanophotonic circuits.