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Published May 19, 2015 | Published
Journal Article Open

Strength of Granular Materials in Transient and Steady State Rapid Shear


This paper discusses relationships between the frictional strength of a flowing granular material and quantities including porosity and grain-scale energy dissipation. The goal of the paper is to foster an understanding of frictional strength that will facilitate the development of constitutive laws incorporating important physical processes. This is accomplished in several steps. First, a friction relationship is derived for a steady state simple shear flow using an energy balance approach. The relationship shows that friction is explicitly related to porosity, grain connectivity, and grain-scale dissipation rates. Next, the friction relationship is extended to describe transient changes in frictional behavior. The relationship shows that, in addition to the processes important for steady flows, the rate of dilatation and changes in internal energy play a role in the frictional strength of a granular material away from steady state. Finally, numerical simulations are performed to illustrate the accuracy of the friction relationships and illuminate important scaling behavior. The discussion of numerical simulations focuses on the rate-dependence of frictional strength and the partition of macroscopic energy dissipation into its grain-scale components. New interpretations of existing constitutive laws and ideas for new constitutive laws are discussed.

Additional Information

© 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license. Available online 19 May 2015. Support from the Air Force Office of Scientific Research Grant #FA9550-12-1-0091 through the University Center of Excellence in High-Rate Deformation Physics of Heterogeneous Materials is gratefully acknowledged.

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