A Stochastic Power Network Calculus for Integrating Renewable Energy Sources into the Power Grid
Renewable energy such as solar and wind generation will constitute an important part of the future grid. As the availability of renewable sources may not match the load, energy storage is essential for grid stability. In this paper we investigate the feasibility of integrating solar photovoltaic (PV) panels and wind turbines into the grid by also accounting for energy storage. To deal with the fluctuation in both the power supply and demand, we extend and apply stochastic network calculus to analyze the power supply reliability with various renewable energy configurations. To illustrate the validity of the model, we conduct a case study for the integration of renewable energy sources into the power system of an island off the coast of Southern California. In particular, we asses the power supply reliability in terms of the average Fraction of Time that energy is Not-Served (FTNS).
© 2012 IEEE. Manuscript received 1 October 2011; revised 1 March 2012. Part of this paper was presented at IEEE SmartGridComm, 2011 . This research is supported by the State Scholarship Fund of China, the National Grand Fundamental Research 973 Program of China (No. 2010CB328105), and the National Natural Scientific Foundation of China (No. 61020106002 and No. 60973107), NSF NetSE grant CNS 0911041, ARPA-E grant DE-AR0000226, and Southern California Edison. The authors are grateful to Rui Huang from UCLA for interactions in generating the data sets, and to the anonymous reviewers for their constructive feedback.