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Published June 11, 2015 | Submitted + Published
Journal Article Open

Supernova seismology: gravitational wave signatures of rapidly rotating core collapse


Gravitational waves (GW) generated during a core-collapse supernova open a window into the heart of the explosion. At core bounce, progenitors with rapid core rotation rates exhibit a characteristic GW signal which can be used to constrain the properties of the core of the progenitor star. We investigate the dynamics of rapidly rotating core collapse, focusing on hydrodynamic waves generated by the core bounce, and the GW spectrum they produce. The centrifugal distortion of the rapidly rotating proto-neutron star (PNS) leads to the generation of axisymmetric quadrupolar oscillations within the PNS and surrounding envelope. Using linear perturbation theory, we estimate the frequencies, amplitudes, damping times, and GW spectra of the oscillations. Our analysis provides a qualitative explanation for several features of the GW spectrum and shows reasonable agreement with non-linear hydrodynamic simulations, although a few discrepancies due to non-linear/rotational effects are evident. The dominant early post-bounce GW signal is produced by the fundamental quadrupolar oscillation mode of the PNS, at a frequency 0.70 ≲ f ≲ 0.80 kHz, whose energy is largely trapped within the PNS and leaks out on a ∼10-ms time-scale. Quasi-radial oscillations are not trapped within the PNS and quickly propagate outwards until they steepen into shocks. Both the PNS structure and Coriolis/centrifugal forces have a strong impact on the GW spectrum, and a detection of the GW signal can therefore be used to constrain progenitor properties.

Additional Information

© 2015 The Authors. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. Accepted 2015 March 26. Received 2015 January 27. First published online April 16, 2015. We thank Nick Stergioulas for helpful comments. This work was partially supported by the National Science Foundation under award nos. AST-1205732, PHY-1125915, and PHY-1151197, by a Lee DuBridge Fellowship awarded to JF at Caltech, and by the Sherman Fairchild Foundation. Some of the non-linear hydrodynamics simulations for this study were carried out on the Caltech compute cluster Zwicky, which is funded by NSF MRI-R2 award no. PHY-0960291, and on NSF XSEDE resources under allocation TGPHY100033.

Attached Files

Published - MNRAS-2015-Fuller-414-27.pdf

Submitted - 1501.06951v2.pdf


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