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Published April 2017 | Published
Journal Article Open

Handheld optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy


Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) offers label-free in vivo imaging with high spatial resolution by acoustically detecting optical absorption contrasts via the photoacoustic effect. We developed a compact handheld OR-PAM probe for fast photoacoustic imaging. Different from benchtop microscopes, the handheld probe provides flexibility in imaging various anatomical sites. Resembling a cup in size, the probe uses a two-axis water-immersible microelectromechanical system mirror to scan both the illuminating optical beam and resultant acoustic beam. The system performance was tested in vivo by imaging the capillary bed in a mouse ear and both the capillary bed and a mole on a human volunteer.

Additional Information

© 2016 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Paper 160264SSR received Apr. 21, 2016; accepted for publication Jun. 9, 2016; published online Oct. 24, 2016. This work was funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) (DP1-EB016986, R01-CA186567, and R01-CA159959) and National Science Foundation (NSF) (1255930). The authors thank Professor James Ballard for his close reading of the manuscript. L. V. Wang has a financial interest in Microphotoacoustics, Inc., which, however, did not support this work.

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