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Published October 2012 | Published
Journal Article Open

Site-Specific Quantification of Bone Quality Using Highly Nonlinear Solitary Waves


Osteoporosis is a well recognized problem affecting millions of individuals worldwide. The ability to diagnose problems in an effective, efficient, and affordable manner and identify individuals at risk is essential. Site-specific assessment of bone mechanical properties is necessary, not only in the process of fracture risk assessment, but may also be desirable for other applications, such as making intraoperative decisions during spine and joint replacement surgeries. The present study evaluates the use of a one-dimensional granular crystal sensor to measure the elastic properties of bone at selected locations via direct mechanical contact. The granular crystal is composed of a tightly packed chain of particles that interact according to the Hertzian contact law. Such chains represent one of the simplest systems to generate and propagate highly nonlinear acoustic signals in the form of compact solitary waves. First, we investigated the sensitivity of the sensor to known variations in bone density using a synthetic cancellous bone substitute, representing clinical bone quality ranging from healthy to osteoporotic. Once the relationship between the signal response and known bone properties was established, the sensor was used to assess the bone quality of ten human cadaveric specimens. The efficacy and accuracy of the sensor was then investigated by comparing the sensor measurements with the bone mineral density (BMD) obtained using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). The results indicate that the proposed technique is capable of detecting differences in bone quality. The ability to measure site-specific properties without exposure to radiation has the potential to be further developed for clinical applications.

Additional Information

© 2012 American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Contributed by the Bioengineering Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Biomechanical Engineering. Manuscript received September 7, 2011; final manuscript received April 26, 2012; accepted manuscript posted August 17, 2012; published online October 1, 2012. Assoc. Editor: Sean S. Kohles. The authors are very grateful to Ashleen Knutsen and Sachith Dunatunga for their assistance in preparing specimens and performing tests. They also thank Jeremy Kalma for his assistance in the preparation of figure illustrations and experiments. C.D. acknowledges support from the National Science Foundation, Grant Nos. CMMI-825345 and CMMI-844540 (CAREER).

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August 22, 2023
October 20, 2023