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Published May 16, 2017 | Published + Supplemental Material
Journal Article Open

A Rapid Capillary-Pressure Driven Micro-Channel to Demonstrate Newtonian Fluid Behavior of Zebrafish Blood at High Shear Rates


Blood viscosity provides the rheological basis to elucidate shear stress underlying developmental cardiac mechanics and physiology. Zebrafish is a high throughput model for developmental biology, forward-genetics, and drug discovery. The micro-scale posed an experimental challenge to measure blood viscosity. To address this challenge, a microfluidic viscometer driven by surface tension was developed to reduce the sample volume required (3μL) for rapid (<2 min) and continuous viscosity measurement. By fitting the power-law fluid model to the travel distance of blood through the micro-channel as a function of time and channel configuration, the experimentally acquired blood viscosity was compared with a vacuum-driven capillary viscometer at high shear rates (>500 s^(−1)), at which the power law exponent (n) of zebrafish blood was nearly 1 behaving as a Newtonian fluid. The measured values of whole blood from the micro-channel (4.17cP) and the vacuum method (4.22cP) at 500 s^(−1) were closely correlated at 27 °C. A calibration curve was established for viscosity as a function of hematocrits to predict a rise and fall in viscosity during embryonic development. Thus, our rapid capillary pressure-driven micro-channel revealed the Newtonian fluid behavior of zebrafish blood at high shear rates and the dynamic viscosity during development.

Additional Information

© 2017 The Author(s). This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. Received: 06 December 2016; Accepted: 07 April 2017; Published online: 16 May 2017. This study was supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) HL118650 (T.K.H., Y.C.T.), HL083015 (T.K.H.), HL111437 (T.K.H., Y.C.T.), HL129727 (T.K.H.), and American Heart Association (AHA) Pre-Doctoral Fellowship 15PRE21400019 (J.L.). Author Contributions: J.L., T.C., D.K., and W.W. designed experiment plan. J.L., H.K., J.C., and K.I.B. performed experiments. T.C., D.K., and W.W. fabricated microfluidic channels. J.C., and Y.D. performed hematocrit from embryonic zebrafish. D.C., Y.T., and T.K.H. supervised and supported the study. The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

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Published - art_3A10.1038_2Fs41598-017-02253-7.pdf

Supplemental Material - 41598_2017_2253_MOESM1_ESM.avi

Supplemental Material - 41598_2017_2253_MOESM2_ESM.avi

Supplemental Material - 41598_2017_2253_MOESM3_ESM.pdf


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