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Published May 2009 | Accepted Version
Journal Article Open

Noninvasive in vivo spectroscopic nanorod-contrast photoacoustic mapping of sentinel lymph nodes


Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy has increasingly become important in axillary staging of breast cancer patients since SLN biopsy alleviates the postoperative complications of previously practiced axillary lymph node dissections. Nevertheless, the procedures of SLN biopsy using blue dye and radioactive substance are still intraoperative, and the latter methods are also ionizing. In this pilot study, we have proposed noninvasive in vivo spectroscopic photoacoustic (PA) SLN mapping using gold nanorods as lymph node tracers in a rat model. Gold nanorods have biocompatibility, high optical absorption, and easily tuned surface plasmon resonance peak wavelength.

Additional Information

© 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Received 13 January 2009; Accepted 14 January 2009. This research is sponsored in part by National Institutes of Health grants R01 EB000712 and R01 NS46214 (BRP). We gratefully acknowledge Nanopartz for their 10–808nm Nanorods TEM image contribution. Thanks to Eunchul Cho for his assistance in measuring the absorbance of nanorods. L.V.W. has a financial interest in Endra, Inc., which, however, did not support this work.

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Accepted Version - nihms-96253.pdf


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