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Published January 2015 | Submitted + Published
Journal Article Open

Iron K and Compton hump reverberation in SWIFT J2127.4+5654 and NGC 1365 revealed by NuSTAR and XMM–Newton


In the past five years, a flurry of X-ray reverberation lag measurements of accreting supermassive black holes have been made using the XMM–Newton telescope in the 0.3–10 keV energy range. In this work, we use the NuSTAR (Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array) telescope to extend the lag analysis up to higher energies for two Seyfert galaxies, SWIFT J2127.4+5654 and NGC 1365. X-ray reverberation lags are due to the light travel time delays between the direct continuum emission and the reprocessed emission from the inner radii of an ionized accretion disc. XMM–Newton has been particularly adept at measuring the lag associated with the broad Fe K emission line, where the gravitationally redshifted wing of the line is observed to respond before the line centroid at 6.4 keV, produced at larger radii. Now, we use NuSTAR to probe the lag at higher energies, where the spectrum shows clear evidence for Compton reflection, known as the Compton 'hump'. The XMM–Newton data show Fe K lags in both SWIFT J2127.4+5654 and NGC 1365. The NuSTAR data provide independent confirmation of these Fe K lags, and also show evidence for the corresponding Compton hump lags, especially in SWIFT J2127.4+5654. These broad-band lag measurements confirm that the Compton hump and Fe K lag are produced at small radii. At low frequencies in NGC 1365, where the spectrum shows evidence for eclipsing clouds in the line of sight, we find a clear negative (not positive) lag from 2 to 10 keV, which can be understood as the decrease in column density from a neutral eclipsing cloud moving out of our line of sight during the observation.

Additional Information

© 2014 The Authors. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. Accepted 2014 October 13. Received 2014 October 13; in original form 2014 May 16. We thank the anonymous referee for helpful comments. EK thanks the Gates Cambridge Scholarship. ACF thanks the Royal Society. EK, ACF, AM and GM acknowledge support from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement no. 312789, StrongGravity. AM and GM acknowledge financial support from Italian Space Agency under grant ASI/INAF I/037/12/0-011/13. This work is based on observations obtained with XMM–Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and NASA. This work was supported under NASA Contract No. NNG08FD60C, and made use of data from the NuSTAR mission, a project led by the California Institute of Technology, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. We thank the NuSTAR Operations, Software and Calibration teams for support with the execution and analysis of these observations. This research has made use of the NuSTAR Data Analysis Software (NuSTARDAS) jointly developed by the ASI Science Data Center (ASDC, Italy) and the California Institute of Technology (USA).

Attached Files

Published - MNRAS-2015-Kara-737-49.pdf

Submitted - 1410.3357v1.pdf


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