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Published February 3, 2012 | Accepted Version
Journal Article Open

Visualizing Neuromodulation In Vivo: TANGO-Mapping of Dopamine Signaling Reveals Appetite Control of Sugar Sensing


Behavior cannot be predicted from a "connectome" because the brain contains a chemical ''map'' of neuromodulation superimposed upon its synaptic connectivity map. Neuromodulation changes how neural circuits process information in different states, such as hunger or arousal. Here we describe a genetically based method to map, in an unbiased and brain-wide manner, sites of neuromodulation under different conditions in the Drosophila brain. This method, and genetic perturbations, reveal that the well-known effect of hunger to enhance behavioral sensitivity to sugar is mediated, at least in part, by the release of dopamine onto primary gustatory sensory neurons, which enhances sugar-evoked calcium influx. These data reinforce the concept that sensory neurons constitute an important locus for state-dependent gain control of behavior and introduce a methodology that can be extended to other neuromodulators and model organisms.

Additional Information

© 2012 Elsevier Inc. Under an Elsevier user license. Received: July 14, 2011; Revised: October 7, 2011; Accepted: December 23, 2011; Published: February 2, 2012. We thank Dr. K.J. Lee for sharing Tango DNA constructs prior to publication. We also thank Drs. T. Lee, K. Deisseroth, A. Stathopoulos, and B. Pfeiffer for plasmids. Fly stocks were generously provided by the Bloomington Stock Center, the VDRC stock center, the Drosophila RNAi Screening Center, and Drs. G.M. Rubin, J. Simpson, L.L Looger, H. Keshishian, K. Scott, T. Lee, S. Birman, P.A. Garrity, C.Q. Doe, and K. Ito. We also thank Drs. H. Otsuna and Y. Wan for Fluorender and members of the Anderson lab for helpful discussion and sharing of flies. H.K.I. is supported by the Nakajima Foundation. G.B. is a Pew scholar and is supported in part by NIH grant 5R01MH086920. D.J.A. is an investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. This work was supported in part by NIH grant 1RO1 DA031389 to D.J.A.

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