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Published April 21, 2017 | Submitted + Supplemental Material
Journal Article Open

iPTF16geu: A multiply imaged, gravitationally lensed type Ia supernova


We report the discovery of a multiply imaged, gravitationally lensed type Ia supernova, iPTF16geu (SN 2016geu), at redshift z = 0.409. This phenomenon was identified because the light from the stellar explosion was magnified more than 50 times by the curvature of space around matter in an intervening galaxy. We used high-spatial-resolution observations to resolve four images of the lensed supernova, approximately 0.3 arc seconds from the center of the foreground galaxy. The observations probe a physical scale of ~1 kiloparsec, smaller than is typical in other studies of extragalactic gravitational lensing. The large magnification and symmetric image configuration imply close alignment between the lines of sight to the supernova and to the lens. The relative magnifications of the four images provide evidence for substructures in the lensing galaxy.

Additional Information

© 2017 American Association for the Advancement of Science. Received for publication 25 October 2016; accepted for publication 24 March 2017. Supported by the Swedish National Science Council and the Swedish National Space Board (A.G., R.A., and E.M.); U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) grant DE-AC02-05CH11231 (P.E.N.); European Research Council grant 615929 (M.S.); NASA (S.R.K.); and NSF grant 1545949. The iPTF Swedish collaboration is funded through a grant from the Knut and Alice Wallenberg foundation. This research used resources of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, supported by DOE contract DE-AC02-05CH11231. Some of the data presented here were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA grant HST-GO-14862.002. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. Some of the data presented here were obtained with ALFOSC, which is provided by the Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (IAA) under a joint agreement with the University of Copenhagen and NOTSA. The Space Telescope Science Data Analysis System (STSDAS) and the command language PyRAF are products of the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) for NASA. Part of the processing was carried out off-line using the commercial software package MATLAB and Statistics Toolbox Release 2013a, The MathWorks Inc., Natick, MA. Photometric data used in this paper are available in tables S1, S2, and S5, spectroscopic data are available at public repository WISeREP (33) (http://wiserep.weizmann.ac.il) under the ID "SN 2016geu"; the positions of the SN images used in the lensing model are provided in table S4.

Attached Files

Submitted - 1611.00014.pdf

Supplemental Material - aal2729_Goobar_SM.pdf


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