Welcome to the new version of CaltechAUTHORS. Login is currently restricted to library staff. If you notice any issues, please email coda@library.caltech.edu
Published December 2007 | public
Journal Article

Effects of wavelength-dependent fluence attenuation on the noninvasive photoacoustic imaging of hemoglobin oxygen saturation in subcutaneous vasculature in vivo


Quantitative measurements of the oxygen saturation of hemoglobin (sO_2) in a blood vessel in vivo presents a challenge in photoacoustic imaging. As a result of wavelength-dependent optical attenuation in the skin, the local fluence at a subcutaneous vessel varies with the optical wavelength in spectral measurement and hence needs to be compensated for so that the intrinsic absorption coefficient can be recovered. Here, by employing a simplified double-layer skin model, we demonstrate that although the absolute value of sO_2 in a vessel is seriously affected by the volume fraction of blood and the spatially averaged sO_2 in the dermis, the difference of sO_2 between neighboring vessels is minimally affected. Experimentally, we acquire compensational factors for the wavelength-dependent optical attenuation by measuring the PA spectrum of a subcutaneously inserted 25 µm thick black film using our PA microscope. We demonstrate in vivo that the difference in sO_2 between a typical artery and a typical vein is conserved before and after spectral compensation. This conservation holds regardless of the animal's systemic physiological state.

Additional Information

© 2007 IOP Publishing Ltd. Received 2 April 2007, in final form 16 October 2007, Published 23 November 2007. This research is sponsored in part by National Institutes of Health grants R01 CA106728 and R01 NS46214 (BRP).

Additional details

August 19, 2023
October 20, 2023