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Published December 2016 | Published
Journal Article Open

Hybridized wavefront shaping for high-speed, high-efficiency focusing through dynamic diffusive media


One of the prime limiting factors of optical imaging in biological applications is the diffusion of light by tissue, which prevents focusing at depths greater than the optical diffusion limit (typically ∼1  mm). To overcome this challenge, wavefront shaping techniques that use a spatial light modulator (SLM) to correct the phase of the incident wavefront have recently been developed. These techniques are able to focus light through scattering media beyond the optical diffusion limit. However, the low speeds of typically used liquid crystal SLMs limit the focusing speed. Here, we present a method using a digital micromirror device (DMD) and an electro-optic modulator (EOM) to measure the scattering-induced aberrations, and using a liquid crystal SLM to apply the correction to the illuminating wavefront. By combining phase modulation from an EOM with the DMD's ability to provide selective illumination, we exploit the DMD's higher refresh rate for phase measurement. We achieved focusing through scattering media in less than 8 ms, which is sufficiently short for certain in vivo applications, as it is comparable to the speckle correlation time of living tissue.

Additional Information

© 2016 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers. Paper 160172SSPR received Mar. 18, 2016; accepted for publication May 17, 2016; published online Sep. 14, 2016. We thank Jinyang Liang for discussions regarding SLM and DMD alignment, Yan Liu for discussion regarding the dynamic diffusive media experiment, and Seema Dahlheimer for editing the manuscript. This work was supported in part by the National Institute of Health grants DP1 EB016986 (NIH Director's Pioneer Award) and R01 CA186567 (NIH Director's Transformative Research Award). L.V.W. has a financial interest in Microphotoacoustics, Inc. and Endra, Inc., which, however, did not support this work.

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