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Published July 15, 2012 | Accepted Version + Supplemental Material
Journal Article Open

Simultaneous functional photoacoustic and ultrasonic endoscopy of internal organs in vivo


At present, clinicians routinely apply ultrasound endoscopy in a variety of interventional procedures that provide treatment solutions for diseased organs. Ultrasound endoscopy not only produces high-resolution images, but also is safe for clinical use and broadly applicable. However, for soft tissue imaging, its mechanical wave–based image contrast fundamentally limits its ability to provide physiologically specific functional information. By contrast, photoacoustic endoscopy possesses a unique combination of functional optical contrast and high spatial resolution at clinically relevant depths, ideal for imaging soft tissues. With these attributes, photoacoustic endoscopy can overcome the current limitations of ultrasound endoscopy. Moreover, the benefits of photoacoustic imaging do not come at the expense of existing ultrasound functions; photoacoustic endoscopy systems are inherently compatible with ultrasound imaging, thereby enabling multimodality imaging with complementary contrast. Here we present simultaneous photoacoustic and ultrasonic dual-mode endoscopy and show its ability to image internal organs in vivo, thus illustrating its potential clinical application.

Additional Information

© 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Received 22 March 2011; accepted 18 November 2011; published online 15 July 2012. We thank J. Ballard for his attentive reading of the manuscript. We also thank J. Kalishman, P. Jiménez-Bluhm, and L. Andrews-Kaminsky for helping with animal preparation, surgery, and image interpretation. We thank B. Matthews, V. Tsytsarev, G. Lanza, R. Senior, and J. Atkinson for helpful discussion on the experimental results. This work was sponsored in part by US National Institutes of Health grants R01 CA157277, R01 EB000712, R01 EB008085, R01 CA134539, P41-EB2182, and U54 CA136398 (Network for Translational Research). J.-M.Y. was supported in part by a Korea Research Foundation Grant funded by the Korean government (KRF-2007-357-C00039). Author Contributions: J.-M.Y. built the system, did the experiments, and wrote the manuscript. C.F. developed the data acquisition program, carried out the experiments, and co-wrote the manuscript. R.C., Q.Z., and K.K.S. designed and fabricated the ultrasonic transducers. J.Y. contributed to the data processing algorithms and also assisted with data processing and experiments. X.C. helped with the experiments. K.M. contributed to the system development. L.V.W. directed the project, conceived the endoscope design, discussed the experiments and revised the manuscript. Competing financial interests: L.V.W. has a financial interest in Microphotoacoustics, Inc. and Endra, Inc., which, however, did not support this work.

Attached Files

Accepted Version - nihms377390.pdf

Supplemental Material - nm.2823-S1.pdf

Supplemental Material - nm.2823-S2.mov

Supplemental Material - nm.2823-S3.mov

Supplemental Material - nm.2823-S4.mov

Supplemental Material - nm.2823-S5.mov

Supplemental Material - nm.2823-S6.mov

Supplemental Material - nm.2823-S7.mov

Supplemental Material - nm.2823-S8.mov


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August 19, 2023
October 19, 2023