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Published October 24, 2013 | Supplemental Material
Journal Article Open

Color Imaging via Nearest Neighbor Hole Coupling in Plasmonic Color Filters Integrated onto a Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor Image Sensor


State-of-the-art CMOS imagers are composed of very small pixels, so it is critical for plasmonic imaging to understand the optical response of finite-size hole arrays and their coupling efficiency to CMOS image sensor pixels. Here, we demonstrate that the transmission spectra of finite-size hole arrays can be accurately described by only accounting for up to the second nearest-neighbor scattering-absorption interactions of hole pairs, thus making hole arrays appealing for close-packed color filters for imaging applications. Using this model, we find that the peak transmission efficiency of a square-shaped hole array with a triangular lattice reaches 90% that of an infinite array at an extent of ~6 × 6 μm^2, the smallest size array showing near-infinite array transmission properties. Finally, we experimentally validate our findings by investigating the transmission and imaging characteristics of a 360 × 320 pixel plasmonic color filter array composed of 5.6 × 5.6 μm^2 RGB color filters integrated onto a commercial black and white 1/2.8 in. CMOS image sensor, demonstrating full-color high resolution plasmonic imaging. Our results show good color fidelity with a 6-color-averaged color difference metric (ΔE) in the range of 16.6–19.3, after white balancing and color-matrix correcting raw images taken with f-numbers ranging from 1.8 to 16. The integrated peak filter transmission efficiencies are measured to be in the 50% range, with a FWHM of 200 nm for all three RGB filters, in good agreement with the spectral response of isolated unmounted color filters.

Additional Information

© 2013 American Chemical Society. Received for review July 31, 2013 and accepted October 24, 2013. Published online October 24, 2013. The authors gratefully acknowledge critical support and infrastructure provided by the Kavli Nanoscience Institute at Caltech. S. Burgos appreciatively acknowledges support from the National Science Foundation Graduate Fellowship. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under a Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative grant FA9550-10-1-0264 and under grant FA9550-09-1-0673.

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