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Published April 11, 2015 | Published + Submitted
Journal Article Open

Analysis of Sunyaev–Zel'dovich effect mass–observable relations using South Pole Telescope observations of an X-ray selected sample of low-mass galaxy clusters and groups


We use microwave observations from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) to examine the Sunyaev–Zel'dovich effect (SZE) signatures of a sample of 46 X-ray selected groups and clusters drawn from ∼6 deg^2 of the XMM–Newton Blanco Cosmology Survey. These systems extend to redshift z = 1.02 and probe the SZE signal to the lowest X-ray luminosities (≥10^(42) erg s^(−1)) yet; these sample characteristics make this analysis complementary to previous studies. We develop an analysis tool, using X-ray luminosity as a mass proxy, to extract selection-bias-corrected constraints on the SZE significance and Y500 mass relations. The former is in good agreement with an extrapolation of the relation obtained from high-mass clusters. However, the latter, at low masses, while in good agreement with the extrapolation from the high-mass SPT clusters, is in tension at 2.8σ with the Planck constraints, indicating the low-mass systems exhibit lower SZE signatures in the SPT data. We also present an analysis of potential sources of contamination. For the radio galaxy point source population, we find 18 of our systems have 843 MHz Sydney University Molonglo Sky Survey sources within 2 arcmin of the X-ray centre, and three of these are also detected at significance >4 by SPT. Of these three, two are associated with the group brightest cluster galaxies, and the third is likely an unassociated quasar candidate. We examine the impact of these point sources on our SZE scaling relation analyses and find no evidence of biases. We also examine the impact of dusty galaxies using constraints from the 220 GHz data. The stacked sample provides 2.8σ significant evidence of dusty galaxy flux, which would correspond to an average underestimate of the SPT Y_(500) signal that is (17 ± 9) per cent in this sample of low-mass systems. Finally, we explore the impact of future data from SPTpol and XMM-XXL, showing that it will lead to a factor of 4 to 5 tighter constraints on these SZE mass–observable relations.

Additional Information

© 2015 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. Accepted 2015 January 13. Received 2014 December 1; in original form 2014 July 29. First published online February 25, 2015. We acknowledge the support of the DFG through TR33 'The Dark Universe' and the Cluster of Excellence 'Origin and Structure of the Universe'. Some calculations have been carried out on the computing facilities of the Computational Center for Particle and Astrophysics (C2PAP). The South Pole Telescope is supported by the National Science Foundation through grant PLR-1248097. Partial support is also provided by the NSF Physics Frontier Center grant PHY-1125897 to the Kavli Institute of Cosmological Physics at the University of Chicago, the Kavli Foundation and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation grant GBMF 947. This work is also supported by the US Department of Energy. Galaxy cluster research at Harvard is supported by NSF grants AST-1009012 and DGE-1144152. Galaxy cluster research at SAO is supported in part by NSF grants AST-1009649 and MRI-0723073. The McGill group acknowledges funding from the National Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, Canada Research Chairs programme, and the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research.

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Submitted - 1407.7520v1.pdf

Published - MNRAS-2015-Liu-2085-99.pdf


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August 20, 2023
August 20, 2023