Welcome to the new version of CaltechAUTHORS. Login is currently restricted to library staff. If you notice any issues, please email coda@library.caltech.edu
Published September 6, 2012 | Published + Supplemental Material
Journal Article Open

Landscape of transcription in human cells


Eukaryotic cells make many types of primary and processed RNAs that are found either in specific subcellular compartments or throughout the cells. A complete catalogue of these RNAs is not yet available and their characteristic subcellular localizations are also poorly understood. Because RNA represents the direct output of the genetic information encoded by genomes and a significant proportion of a cell's regulatory capabilities are focused on its synthesis, processing, transport, modification and translation, the generation of such a catalogue is crucial for understanding genome function. Here we report evidence that three-quarters of the human genome is capable of being transcribed, as well as observations about the range and levels of expression, localization, processing fates, regulatory regions and modifications of almost all currently annotated and thousands of previously unannotated RNAs. These observations, taken together, prompt a redefinition of the concept of a gene.

Additional Information

© 2012 Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial-Share Alike licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/). Received 10 December 2011; accepted 15 May 2012. This work was supported by the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) production grants U54HG004557, U54HG004555, U54HG004576 and U54HG004558, and by the NHGRI pilot grant R01HG003700. It was also supported by the NHGRI ARRA stimulus grant 1RC2HG005591, the National Science Foundation (SNF) grant 127375, the European Research Council (ERC) grant 249968, a research grant for the RIKEN Omics Science Center from the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, and grants BIO2011-26205, CSD2007-00050 and INB GNV-1 from the Spanish Ministry of Science. We would also like to thank C. Gunter and W. Spitzer for editorial assistance with the manuscript. T.R.G., R.G., P.C., B.W., Y.R., M.C.G., G.H., S.E.A., A.R., T.H., M.G. and Y.H. led the project and oversaw the analysis. C.A.D., X.R., B.A.W. and P.C. oversaw or significantly contributed to data generation. S.D., A.Me., A.D., T.L., A.Mo., A.T., J.L., W.L., F.S., C.X., G.K.M., J.K., C.Z., J.R.,M.R., F.K. and J.H. made major contributions towards data processing and analysis. R.F.A., T.A., I.A., M.T.B., N.S.B., P.B., K.B., I.B.,S.C., X.C., J.Ch., J.Cu., T.D., J.Dr., E.D., J.Du., R.D., E.F.,M.F., K.F-T., P.F., S.F., M.J.F., H.Ga., D.G.,A.G., H.Gu., C.H.,S.J., R.J., P.K., B.K., C.K., O.J.L., E.P., K.P., J.B.P., P.R., B.R., D.R., M.S., L.S., L.-H.S., A.S., J.S., A.M.S., H.Ta., H.Ti., D.T., N.W., H.W., J.W. and Y.Y. were responsible for data production and analysis. T.R.G. and R.G. wrote the manuscript with input from all authors.

Attached Files

Published - nature11233.pdf

Supplemental Material - nature11233-s1.pdf

Supplemental Material - nature11233-s2.pdf


Files (8.9 MB)
Name Size Download all
1.1 MB Preview Download
3.6 MB Preview Download
4.2 MB Preview Download

Additional details

August 22, 2023
October 20, 2023