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Published February 4, 2023 | Submitted
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Large-scale brain-wide neural recording in nonhuman primates


High-density, integrated silicon electrodes have begun to transform systems neuroscience, by enabling large-scale neural population recordings with single cell resolution. Existing technologies, however, have provided limited functionality in nonhuman primate species such as macaques, which offer close models of human cognition and behavior. Here, we report the design, fabrication, and performance of Neuropixels 1.0-NHP, a high channel count linear electrode array designed to enable large-scale simultaneous recording in superficial and deep structures within the macaque or other large animal brain. These devices were fabricated in two versions: 4416 electrodes along a 45 mm shank, and 2496 along a 25 mm shank. For both versions, users can programmably select 384 channels, enabling simultaneous multi-area recording with a single probe. We demonstrate recording from over 3000 single neurons within a session, and simultaneous recordings from over 1000 neurons using multiple probes. This technology represents a significant increase in recording access and scalability relative to existing technologies, and enables new classes of experiments involving fine-grained electrophysiological characterization of brain areas, functional connectivity between cells, and simultaneous brain-wide recording at scale.

Additional Information

The copyright holder for this preprint is the author/funder, who has granted bioRxiv a license to display the preprint in perpetuity. We dedicate this manuscript to Krishna Shenoy (1968-2023), whose visionary leadership set this work in motion. His passion and dedication inspired a generation of neuroscientists and engineers, and his presence will continue to resonate within our field and community. We thank the support of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, who funded the development of the probe. We thank Yanina Pavlova, Danielle Abreu Lopes, Stephen Cital, Cornel Duhaney, Brian Madeira, Mackenzie Risch, and Michelle Wechsler for surgical assistance and expert veterinary care. for their assistance in the planning and execution of surgeries, animal training and general support, and Stephen Ryu for surgical expertise. We thank Bob Schneeveis and Tanya Tabachnik for engineering assistance. In addition, we thank Columbia University's ICM for the quality of care they provide for our animals, especially during the pandemic and lockdown. We thank Wei-lung Sun, for probe testing and software development (HHMI Janelia). E.M.T. is supported by the Grossman center and the Brain and Behavior Research Foundation. S.V is supported by NIH NRSA NINDS F32, N.A.S is supported by NIH Brain Initiative (MR01NS113113). T.M. is supported by EY014924, NS116623. A.Z. is supported by the American Parkinson Disease Post-Doctoral Fellowship. D.J.O is supported by SCGB (543045). The authors have declared no competing interest.

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Submitted - 2023.02.01.526664v2.full.pdf


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