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Published July 2019 | Published + Submitted
Journal Article Open

A dust and gas cavity in the disc around CQ Tau revealed by ALMA


The combination of high-resolution and sensitivity offered by ALMA is revolutionizing our understanding of protoplanetary discs, as their bulk gas and dust distributions can be studied independently. In this paper we present resolved ALMA observations of the continuum emission (λ = 1.3 mm) and CO isotopologues (^(12)CO, ^(13)CO, C^(18)O, J = 2 − 1) integrated intensity from the disc around the nearby (d = 162 pc), intermediate-mass (⁠M⋆=1.67M⊙⁠) pre-main-sequence star CQ Tau. The data show an inner depression in continuum and in both ^(13)CO and C^(18)O emission. We employ a thermo-chemical model of the disc reproducing both continuum and gas radial intensity profiles, together with the disc spectral energy distribution. The models show that a gas inner cavity with size between 15 and 25 au is needed to reproduce the data with a density depletion factor between ∼10^(−1) and ∼10^(−3). The radial profile of the distinct cavity in the dust continuum is described by a Gaussian ring centred at R_(dust) = 53au and with a width of σ = 13au. Three-dimensional gas and dust numerical simulations of a disc with an embedded planet at a separation from the central star of ∼20 au and with a mass of ∼6−9M_(Jup) reproduce qualitatively the gas and dust profiles of the CQ Tau disc. However, a one-planet model appears not to be able to reproduce the dust Gaussian density profile predicted using the thermo-chemical modeling.

Additional Information

© 2019 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model). Accepted 2019 April 16. Received 2019 April 9; in original form 2018 December 5. Published: 30 April 2019. We thank the anonymous referee for providing insightful comments. We are thankful to Antonella Natta, Antonio Garufi, Mario van den Ancker, and Carlo F. Manara for useful discussions. This paper makes use of the following ALMA data: ADS/JAO.ALMA#2013.1.00498.S, ADS/JAO.ALMA#2016.A.000026.S, and ADS/JAO.ALMA#2017.1.01404.S. ALMA is a partnership of ESO (representing its member states), NSF (USA) and NINS (Japan), together with NRC (Canada) and NSC and ASIAA (Taiwan) and KASI (Republic of Korea), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The Joint ALMA Observatory is operated by ESO, auI/NRAO and NAOJ. This work was partly supported by the Italian Ministero dellÍstruzione, Università e Ricerca through the grant Progetti Premiali 2012 – iALMA (CUP C52I13000140001), by the Deutsche Forschungs-gemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation) – Ref no. FOR 2634/1 TE 1024/1-1, and by the DFG cluster of excellence Origin and Structure of the Universe (www.universe-cluster.de). AM and SF acknowledge an ESO Fellowship. GD and ER acknowledge financial support from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (grant agreement No 681601). MT has been supported by the DISCSIM project, grant agreement 341137 funded by the European Research Council under ERC-2013-ADG and by the UK Science and Technology research Council (STFC). GL, MGUG, AM, SF, LT, LP, and MT have received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No. 823823 (RISE DUSTBUSTERS project).

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August 19, 2023
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