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Published February 17, 2011 | Published
Book Section - Chapter Open

Noninvasive quantification of metabolic rate of oxygen (MRO_2) by photoacoustic microscopy


Many diseases, normal decay and physiological functions are closely related to alterations in the metabolic rate of oxygen (MRO_2). In this study, we demonstrate that all the parameters for MRO_2 quantification can be simultaneously obtained by optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM). MRO_2 of the mouse ear under normothermia (31 °C skin temperature) and controlled systematic hyperthermia (42 °C skin temperature) was studied. As a result of hyperthermia, the MRO_2 increased by 34.1%. The tumor hypermetabolism was also demonstrated by longitudinally monitoring a melanoma growing on a mouse ear. The results show that OR-PAM, as a single noninvasive imaging modality, is well suited for quantitative MRO_2 measurement in microenvironments.

Additional Information

© 2011 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). The authors thank Christopher Favazza, Lidai Wang, Dakang Yao and Arie Krumholz for helpful discussion, Li Li for experimental assistance. This research was supported by the National Institutes of Health Grants R01 EB000712, R01 EB008085, R01 CA134539, U54 CA136398, R01 EB010049, and 5P60 DK02057933. L.V.W. has a financial interest in Microphotoacoustics, Inc. and Endra, Inc., which, however, did not support this work.

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