Welcome to the new version of CaltechAUTHORS. Login is currently restricted to library staff. If you notice any issues, please email coda@library.caltech.edu
Published April 1963 | Published
Journal Article Open

Dynamic Penetration Studies in Crushed Rock under Atmospheric and Vacuum Conditions


A device was constructed to study dynamic penetration in crushed rock both in air and a high-vacuum (10^(-5) mm Hg) condition. The apparatus is designed to drop cylindrical, metal rods, pointed on one end, into cohesion-less crushed rock material. Dynamic penetration is studied as a function of several particle sizes and mixtures of these particle sizes. Other factors considered are the density of packing, probe dimensions, vacuum pressure, and vacuum degassing rates. Experimental results show that the density of packing of the crushed rock particles is the dominant factor affecting the dynan1ic penetration. The maximum penetration occurs in air in the crushed rock with low-density packing. The 1ninimum penetration occurs in air in densely packed material. Dynamic penetration in vacuum for the low-density and high-density packing lies between the results of penetration in air for the same packing conditions. At vacuum pressures above approximately 0.1 mm Hg, all penetration values approach the air penetration measurements.

Additional Information

© 1963 AIAA. Presented at the ARS 17th Annual Meeting and Space Flight Exposition, Los Angeles, Calif., November 13-18, 1962. The study described in this report was conducted in the Materials Research Section, Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Support for J. B. Rittenhouse and R. F. Scott was under NASA Contract No. NASw-6, and support for D. J. Roddy was under Contract No. NsG-56-60, sponsored by NASA. The writers wish to express their appreciation for advice and assistance given by Bruce C. Murray, Research Fellow in Space Science, Division of Geological Sciences, California Institute of Technology, and Harrison Brown, Professor of Geochemistry, Division of Geological Sciences, California Institute of Technology. Leon T. Silver, Associate Professor of Geological Sciences, California Institute of Technology, kindly provided the olivine basalt. The writers are indebted to Leonard D. Jaffe, Chief, Materials Research Section, and Howard E. Martens, Assistant Chief of Materials Research Section, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, for their continued assistance in this project. The writers are indebted to Ellis P. Frank of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and to Sandy Liu of the California Institute of Technology for their technical assistance in this study.

Attached Files

Published - 386453.pdf


Files (2.9 MB)
Name Size Download all
2.9 MB Preview Download

Additional details

August 19, 2023
October 25, 2023