LSO/LYSO Crystals for Calorimeters in Future HEP Experiments
Because of their high stopping power (X_0=1.14 cm), fast (τ = 40 ns) bright (4 times BGO) scintillation with small temperature coefficient (-0.2%/°C) and superb radiation hardness, LSO/LYSO crystals are chosen to construct electromagnetic calorimeters (ECAL) of total absorption nature. One critical issue for this application is the light response uniformity (LRU) of long crystal bars with tapered geometry, which is affected by the non-uniform light yield along the crystal, the self-absorption and the optical focusing effect. Following a ray-tracing simulation study, an uniformization method was developed by roughening one side surface with LRU of better than 3% achieved. LSO/LYSO crystals are also proposed as the active material for a sampling ECAL for future HEP experiments in severe radiation environment. Preliminary designs with Pb or W absorber are described. Measurements of light collection efficiency (LCE) for prototype Shashlik cells with wavelength shifting fiber readout are presented. Future development on LSO/LYSO crystal based sampling ECAL is discussed.