Luminescence of [Ru(bpy)_2(dppz)]^(2+) Bound to RNA Mismatches
The luminescence of rac-[Ru(bpy)_2(dppz)]^(2+) (bpy = 2,2′-bipyridine and dppz = dipyrido[3,2-a:2′,3′-c]phenazine) was explored in the presence of RNA oligonucleotides containing a single RNA mismatch (CA and GG) in order to develop a probe for RNA mismatches. While there is minimal luminescence of [Ru(bpy)_2(dppz)]^(2+) in the presence of matched RNA due to weak binding, the luminescence is significantly enhanced in the presence of a single CA mismatch. The luminescence differential between CA mismatched and matched RNA is substantially higher compared to the DNA analogue, and therefore, [Ru(bpy)_2(dppz)]^(2+) appears to be also a sensitive light switch probe for a CA mismatch in duplex RNA. Although the luminescence intensity is lower in the presence of RNA than DNA, Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between the donor ruthenium complex and FRET acceptor SYTO 61 is successfully exploited to amplify the luminescence in the presence of the mismatch. Luminescence and quenching studies with sodium iodide suggest that [Ru(bpy)_2(dppz)]^(2+) binds to these mismatches via metalloinsertion from the minor groove. This work provides further evidence that metalloinsertion is a general binding mode of octahedral metal complexes to thermodynamically destabilized mismatches not only in DNA but also in RNA.
© 2013 American Chemical Society. Received: June 17, 2013; Published: August 22, 2013. We thank the NIH (GM33309 to J.K.B.) for their financial support, the Lindemann Trust for a postdoctoral fellowship to A.J.M., and the Tobacco-Related Disease Research Program (TRDRP) for a Dissertation Research Award to H.S. We are grateful to the Beckman Institute Laser Resource Center (BILRC) at Caltech for facilities.
Accepted Version - nihms518549.pdf
Supplemental Material - ic401531r_si_001.pdf