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Published April 1, 2011 | Published
Journal Article Open

Real-time four-dimensional optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy with Au nanoparticle-assisted subdiffraction-limit resolution


Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) offers label-free, optical absorption contrast. A high-speed, high-resolution PAM system in an inverted microscope configuration with a laser pulse repetition rate of 100,000 Hz and a stationary ultrasonic transducer was built. Four-dimensional in vivo imaging of microcirculation in mouse skin was achieved at 18 three-dimensional volumes per second with repeated two-dimensional (2D) raster scans of 100 by 50 points. The corresponding 2D B-scan (50 A-lines) frame rate was 1800 Hz, and the one-dimensional A-scan rate was 90,000 Hz. The lateral resolution is 0.23±0.03 μm for Au nanowire imaging, which is 2.0 times below the diffraction limit.

Additional Information

© 2011 Optical Society of America. Received January 19, 2011; revised February 23, 2011; accepted February 25, 2011; posted March 3, 2011 (Doc. ID 140483); published March 23, 2011. We gratefully thank the National Institutes of Health (NIH) for supporting grants R01 EB000712, R01 EB008085, R01 CA134539, U54 CA136398, R01 CA157277, and P41-EB2182. Help from D. Yao in preparing samples is appreciated. L. Wang has a financial interest in Microphotoacoustics, Inc. and Endra, Inc., which, however, did not support this work.

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