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Published December 20, 2023 | Published
Journal Article Open

High quality factor metasurfaces for two-dimensional wavefront manipulation

  • 1. ROR icon California Institute of Technology


The strong interaction of light with micro- and nanostructures plays a critical role in optical sensing, nonlinear optics, active optical devices, and quantum optics. However, for wavefront shaping, the required local control over light at a subwavelength scale limits this interaction, typically leading to low-quality-factor optical devices. Here, we demonstrate an avenue towards high-quality-factor wavefront shaping in two spatial dimensions based on all-dielectric higher-order Mie-resonant metasurfaces. We design and experimentally realize transmissive band stop filters, beam deflectors and high numerical aperture radial lenses with measured quality factors in the range of 202–1475 at near-infrared wavelengths. The excited optical mode and resulting wavefront control are both local, allowing versatile operation with finite apertures and oblique illumination. Our results represent an improvement in quality factor by nearly two orders of magnitude over previous localized mode designs, and provide a design approach for a new class of compact optical devices.

Copyright and License

© The Author(s) 2023. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.


This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under grant FA9550−18-1-0354 (C.U.H., R.S., and H.A.A.) and the Meta-Imaging MURI grant #FA9550−21−1-0312(M.F.). C.U.H. also acknowledges support from the Swiss National Science Foundation through the Early Postdoc Mobility Fellowship grant #P2EZP2_191880. L.M. acknowledges support from the Fulbright Fellowship program and the Breakthrough Foundation. We gratefully acknowledge the critical support and infrastructure provided for this work by The Kavli Nanoscience Institute at Caltech.


C.U.H, H.A.A., and R.S. conceived the project. C.U.H. performed the simulations, fabricated the devices, built the experiment, performed the measurements, and analyzed the results. R.S. and C.U.H. conceived the metasurface design. M.F. assisted with simulations and fabrication. L. M. assisted with analyzing the results. C.U.H. wrote the paper with input from all other authors. H.A.A supervised all aspects of the project.

Data Availability

All the relevant data of this study are included in the paper and supplementary information file, and raw data are available from the corresponding author upon request.

Conflict of Interest

The Authors declare no competing interests.


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Additional details

December 21, 2023
December 22, 2023