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Published March 4, 2013 | Published
Book Section - Chapter Open

Photoacoustic microscopy of neovascularization in three-dimensional porous scaffolds in vivo


It is a challenge to non-invasively visualize in vivo the neovascularization in a three-dimensional (3D) scaffold with high spatial resolution and deep penetration depth. Here we used photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) to chronically monitor neovascularization in an inverse opal scaffold implanted in a mouse model for up to six weeks. The neovasculature was observed to develop gradually in the same mouse. These blood vessels not only grew on top of the implanted scaffold but also penetrated into the scaffold. The PAM system offered a lateral resolution of ~45 μm and a penetration depth of ~3 mm into the scaffold/tissue construct. By using the 3D PAM data, we further quantified the vessel area as a function of time.

Additional Information

© 2013 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Our work was also sponsored by NIH grants R01 EB000712, R01 EB008085, R01 CA140220, R01 CA157277, R01 CA159959, U54 CA136398, and DP1 EB016986-NIH Director's Pioneer Award. L.V.W. has a financial interest in Microphotoacoustics, Inc., and Endra, Inc., which, however, did not support this work. Others claim no competing financial interests.

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