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Published January 10, 2007 | Accepted Version + Supplemental Material
Journal Article Open

Methods to Explore Cellular Uptake of Ruthenium Complexes


The cellular uptake of a series of dipyridophenazine (dppz) complexes of Ru(II) was examined by flow cytometry. The complexes, owing to their facile synthesis, stability, and luminescence, provide a route to compare and contrast systematically factors governing cellular entry. Substituting the ancillary ligands in the dppz complexes of Ru(II) permits variation in the overall complex charge, size, and hydrophobicity. In HeLa cells, cellular uptake appears to be facilitated by the lipophilic 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (DIP) ligand. Despite the large size of Ru(DIP)_2dppz^(2+) (20 Å diameter), this complex is readily transported inside the cell compared to smaller and more hydrophilic complexes, such as Ru(bpy)_2dppz^(2+). Accumulation in the cellular interior is confirmed by confocal microscopy.

Additional Information

© 2007 American Chemical Society. Received October 30, 2006. Publication Date (Web): December 15, 2006. We are grateful to the NIH (GM33309) for their financial support. We also thank the Caltech Flow Cytometry Facility and the Caltech Biological Imaging Center.

Attached Files

Accepted Version - nihms122757.pdf

Supplemental Material - ja0677564_si_001.pdf


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