Welcome to the new version of CaltechAUTHORS. Login is currently restricted to library staff. If you notice any issues, please email coda@library.caltech.edu
Published February 2021 | Supplemental Material + Published + Submitted
Journal Article Open

Collective behavior in the kinetics and equilibrium of solid-state photoreaction


There is current interest in developing photoactive materials that deform on illumination. The strategy is to develop new photoactive molecules in solution, and then to incorporate these in the solid-state either by crystallization or by inserting them into polymers. This letter shows that the kinetics and the nature of the photo-induced phase transitions are profoundly different in single molecules (solution) and in the solid state using a lattice spin model. In solution, where the molecules act independently, the photoreaction follows first-order kinetics. However, in the solid state where the photoactive molecules interact with each other and therefore behave collectively during reaction, photoreactions follow the sigmoidal kinetics of nucleation and growth as in a first-order phase transition. Further, we find that the exact nature of the photo-induced strain has a critical effect on the kinetics, equilibrium, and microstructure formation. These predictions agree qualitatively with experimental observations, and provide insights for the development of new photoactive materials.

Additional Information

© 2020 Elsevier Ltd. Received 8 November 2020, Revised 21 December 2020, Accepted 21 December 2020, Available online 28 December 2020. We gratefully acknowledge many stimulating discussions with Christopher Bardeen. This work was supported by the Office of Naval Research, United States through the MURI on Photomechanical Material Systems (ONR N00014-18-1-2624). The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.

Attached Files

Published - 1-s2.0-S2352431620303102-main.pdf

Submitted - 2011.01072.pdf

Supplemental Material - 1-s2.0-S2352431620303102-mmc1.mp4

Supplemental Material - 1-s2.0-S2352431620303102-mmc2.mp4

Supplemental Material - 1-s2.0-S2352431620303102-mmc3.mp4

Supplemental Material - 1-s2.0-S2352431620303102-mmc4.mp4

Supplemental Material - 1-s2.0-S2352431620303102-mmc5.docx


Files (14.4 MB)
Name Size Download all
1.4 MB Preview Download
7.7 MB Download
264.8 kB Download
348.7 kB Download
2.5 MB Preview Download
391.2 kB Download
1.8 MB Download

Additional details

August 22, 2023
October 20, 2023